naginterfaces.library.correg.glm_normal¶
- naginterfaces.library.correg.glm_normal(x, isx, y, link='I', mean='M', wt=None, s=0.0, a=0.0, v=None, tol=0.0, maxit=10, iprint=0, eps=0.0, io_manager=None)[source]¶
glm_normal
fits a generalized linear model with normal errors.For full information please refer to the NAG Library document for g02ga
https://www.nag.com/numeric/nl/nagdoc_29/flhtml/g02/g02gaf.html
- Parameters
- xfloat, array-like, shape
must contain the th observation for the th independent variable, for , for .
- isxint, array-like, shape
Indicates which independent variables are to be included in the model.
If , the variable contained in the th column of is included in the regression model.
- yfloat, array-like, shape
The observations on the dependent variable, , for .
- linkstr, length 1, optional
Indicates which link function is to be used.
An exponent link is used.
An identity link is used.
A log link is used.
A square root link is used.
A reciprocal link is used.
- meanstr, length 1, optional
Indicates if a mean term is to be included.
A mean term, intercept, will be included in the model.
The model will pass through the origin, zero-point.
- wtNone or float, array-like, shape , optional
If provided must contain the weights to be used with the model.
If , the th observation is not included in the model, in which case the effective number of observations is the number of observations with nonzero weights.
If is not provided the effective number of observations is .
- sfloat, optional
The scale parameter for the model, .
If , the scale parameter is estimated with the function using the residual mean square.
- afloat, optional
If , must contain the power of the exponential.
If , is not referenced.
- vNone or float, array-like, shape , optional
If , , for , must contain the offset values .
All other values need not be set.
- tolfloat, optional
Indicates the accuracy required for the fit of the model.
The iterative weighted least squares procedure is deemed to have converged if the absolute change in deviance between interactions is less than .
This is approximately an absolute precision if the residual sum of squares is small and a relative precision if the residual sum of squares is large.
If ,
glm_normal
will use .- maxitint, optional
The maximum number of iterations for the iterative weighted least squares.
If , a default value of is used.
- iprintint, optional
Indicates if the printing of information on the iterations is required.
There is no printing.
Every iteration, the following is printed:
the deviance,
the current estimates,
and if the weighted least squares equations are singular, then this is indicated.
When printing occurs the output is directed to the file object associated with the advisory I/O unit (see
FileObjManager
).- epsfloat, optional
The value of is used to decide if the independent variables are of full rank and, if not, what is the rank of the independent variables. The smaller the value of the stricter the criterion for selecting the singular value decomposition.
If , the function will use machine precision instead.
- io_managerFileObjManager, optional
Manager for I/O in this routine.
- Returns
- sfloat
If on input , contains the estimated value of the scale parameter, .
If on input , is unchanged on exit.
- rssfloat
The residual sum of squares for the fitted model.
- idfint
The degrees of freedom associated with the residual sum of squares for the fitted model.
- bfloat, ndarray, shape
The estimates of the parameters of the generalized linear model, .
If , will contain the estimate of the mean parameter and will contain the coefficient of the variable contained in column of , where is the th positive value in the array .
If , will contain the coefficient of the variable contained in column of , where is the th positive value in the array .
- irankint
The rank of the independent variables.
If the model is of full rank, .
If the model is not of full rank, is an estimate of the rank of the independent variables. is calculated as the number of singular values greater than (largest singular value).
It is possible for the SVD to be carried out but for to be returned as .
- sefloat, ndarray, shape
The standard errors of the linear parameters.
contains the standard error of the parameter estimate in , for .
- covfloat, ndarray, shape
The upper triangular part of the variance-covariance matrix of the parameter estimates given in . They are stored packed by column, i.e., the covariance between the parameter estimate given in and the parameter estimate given in , , is stored in .
- vfloat, ndarray, shape
Auxiliary information on the fitted model.
contains the linear predictor value, , for .
contains the fitted value, , for .
is only included for consistency with other functions. , for .
contains the square root of the working weight, , for .
contains the residual, , for .
contains the leverage, , for .
contains the offset, for . If is None on entry, all values will be zero.
for , contains the results of the decomposition or the singular value decomposition.
If the model is not of full rank, i.e., , the first rows of columns to contain the matrix.
- Raises
- NagValueError
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: or .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: , , , or .
- (errno )
On entry, and .
Constraint: if , .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: or .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: or .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: , for .
- (errno )
On entry, .
Constraint: , for .
- (errno )
On entry, incompatible with number of nonzero values of : .
- (errno )
Number of requested x-variables greater than .
- (errno )
A fitted value is at a boundary. This will only occur with , or . This may occur if there are small values of and the model is not suitable for the data. The model should be reformulated with, perhaps, some observations dropped.
- (errno )
SVD solution failed to converge.
- (errno )
The iterative weighted least squares has failed to converge in (or default ) iterations. The value of could be increased but it may be advantageous to examine the convergence using the option. This may indicate that the convergence is slow because the solution is at a boundary in which case it may be better to reformulate the model.
- Warns
- NagAlgorithmicWarning
- (errno )
The rank of the model has changed during the weighted least squares iterations. The estimate for returned may be reasonable, but you should check how the deviance has changed during iterations.
- (errno )
The degrees of freedom for error are . A saturated model has been fitted.
- Notes
In the NAG Library the traditional C interface for this routine uses a different algorithmic base. Please contact NAG if you have any questions about compatibility.
A generalized linear model with Normal errors consists of the following elements:
a set of observations, , from a Normal distribution with probability density function:
where is the mean and is the variance.
, a set of independent variables for each observation, .
a linear model:
a link between the linear predictor, , and the mean of the distribution, , i.e., . The possible link functions are:
exponent link: , for a constant ,
identity link: ,
log link: ,
square root link: ,
reciprocal link: .
a measure of fit, the residual sum of squares .
The linear parameters are estimated by iterative weighted least squares. An adjusted dependent variable, , is formed:
and a working weight, ,
At each iteration an approximation to the estimate of , , is found by the weighted least squares regression of on with weights .
glm_normal
finds a decomposition of , i.e., where is a triangular matrix and is an column orthogonal matrix.If is of full rank, then is the solution to
If is not of full rank a solution is obtained by means of a singular value decomposition (SVD) of .
where is a diagonal matrix with nonzero diagonal elements, being the rank of and .
This gives the solution
being the first columns of , i.e., .
The iterations are continued until there is only a small change in the residual sum of squares.
The initial values for the algorithm are obtained by taking
The fit of the model can be assessed by examining and testing the residual sum of squares, in particular comparing the difference in residual sums of squares between nested models, i.e., when one model is a sub-model of the other.
Let be the residual sum of squares for the full model with degrees of freedom and let be the residual sum of squares for the sub-model with degrees of freedom then:
has, approximately, an -distribution with (), degrees of freedom.
The parameter estimates, , are asymptotically Normally distributed with variance-covariance matrix:
in the full rank case,
otherwise
The residuals and influence statistics can also be examined.
The estimated linear predictor , can be written as for an matrix . The th diagonal elements of , , give a measure of the influence of the th values of the independent variables on the fitted regression model. These are sometimes known as leverages.
The fitted values are given by .
glm_normal
also computes the residuals, :An option allows prior weights to be used; this gives a model with:
In many linear regression models the first term is taken as a mean term or an intercept, i.e., , for ; this is provided as an option.
Often only some of the possible independent variables are included in a model, the facility to select variables to be included in the model is provided.
If part of the linear predictor can be represented by a variable with a known coefficient, then this can be included in the model by using an offset, :
If the model is not of full rank the solution given will be only one of the possible solutions. Other estimates may be obtained by applying constraints to the parameters. These solutions can be obtained by using
glm_constrain()
after usingglm_normal
. Only certain linear combinations of the parameters will have unique estimates; these are known as estimable functions and can be estimated and tested usingglm_estfunc()
.Details of the SVD are made available, in the form of the matrix :
- References
Cook, R D and Weisberg, S, 1982, Residuals and Influence in Regression, Chapman and Hall
McCullagh, P and Nelder, J A, 1983, Generalized Linear Models, Chapman and Hall