# NAG CL Interfacef07thc (dtrrfs)

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## 1Purpose

f07thc returns error bounds for the solution of a real triangular system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides, $AX=B$ or ${A}^{\mathrm{T}}X=B$.

## 2Specification

 #include
 void f07thc (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_UploType uplo, Nag_TransType trans, Nag_DiagType diag, Integer n, Integer nrhs, const double a[], Integer pda, const double b[], Integer pdb, const double x[], Integer pdx, double ferr[], double berr[], NagError *fail)
The function may be called by the names: f07thc, nag_lapacklin_dtrrfs or nag_dtrrfs.

## 3Description

f07thc returns the backward errors and estimated bounds on the forward errors for the solution of a real triangular system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides $AX=B$ or ${A}^{\mathrm{T}}X=B$. The function handles each right-hand side vector (stored as a column of the matrix $B$) independently, so we describe the function of f07thc in terms of a single right-hand side $b$ and solution $x$.
Given a computed solution $x$, the function computes the component-wise backward error $\beta$. This is the size of the smallest relative perturbation in each element of $A$ and $b$ such that $x$ is the exact solution of a perturbed system
 $(A+δA)x=b+δb |δaij|≤β|aij| and |δbi|≤β|bi| .$
Then the function estimates a bound for the component-wise forward error in the computed solution, defined by:
 $maxi|xi-x^i|/maxi|xi|$
where $\stackrel{^}{x}$ is the true solution.
For details of the method, see the F07 Chapter Introduction.

## 4References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{order}$Nag_OrderType Input
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.1.3 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$.
2: $\mathbf{uplo}$Nag_UploType Input
On entry: specifies whether $A$ is upper or lower triangular.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$
$A$ is upper triangular.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$
$A$ is lower triangular.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$.
3: $\mathbf{trans}$Nag_TransType Input
On entry: indicates the form of the equations.
${\mathbf{trans}}=\mathrm{Nag_NoTrans}$
The equations are of the form $AX=B$.
${\mathbf{trans}}=\mathrm{Nag_Trans}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ConjTrans}$
The equations are of the form ${A}^{\mathrm{T}}X=B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{trans}}=\mathrm{Nag_NoTrans}$, $\mathrm{Nag_Trans}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ConjTrans}$.
4: $\mathbf{diag}$Nag_DiagType Input
On entry: indicates whether $A$ is a nonunit or unit triangular matrix.
${\mathbf{diag}}=\mathrm{Nag_NonUnitDiag}$
$A$ is a nonunit triangular matrix.
${\mathbf{diag}}=\mathrm{Nag_UnitDiag}$
$A$ is a unit triangular matrix; the diagonal elements are not referenced and are assumed to be $1$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{diag}}=\mathrm{Nag_NonUnitDiag}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UnitDiag}$.
5: $\mathbf{n}$Integer Input
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
6: $\mathbf{nrhs}$Integer Input
On entry: $r$, the number of right-hand sides.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs}}\ge 0$.
7: $\mathbf{a}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$const double Input
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pda}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry: the $n×n$ triangular matrix $A$.
If ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+i-1\right]$.
If ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+j-1\right]$.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$, the upper triangular part of $A$ must be stored and the elements of the array below the diagonal are not referenced.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$, the lower triangular part of $A$ must be stored and the elements of the array above the diagonal are not referenced.
If ${\mathbf{diag}}=\mathrm{Nag_UnitDiag}$, the diagonal elements of $A$ are assumed to be $1$, and are not referenced.
8: $\mathbf{pda}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) of the matrix $A$ in the array a.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
9: $\mathbf{b}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$const double Input
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdb}}×{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×{\mathbf{pdb}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $B$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the $n×r$ right-hand side matrix $B$.
10: $\mathbf{pdb}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
11: $\mathbf{x}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$const double Input
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array x must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdx}}×{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×{\mathbf{pdx}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $X$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{x}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdx}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{x}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdx}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the $n×r$ solution matrix $X$, as returned by f07tec.
12: $\mathbf{pdx}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array x.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
13: $\mathbf{ferr}\left[{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right]$double Output
On exit: ${\mathbf{ferr}}\left[\mathit{j}-1\right]$ contains an estimated error bound for the $\mathit{j}$th solution vector, that is, the $\mathit{j}$th column of $X$, for $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,r$.
14: $\mathbf{berr}\left[{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right]$double Output
On exit: ${\mathbf{berr}}\left[\mathit{j}-1\right]$ contains the component-wise backward error bound $\beta$ for the $\mathit{j}$th solution vector, that is, the $\mathit{j}$th column of $X$, for $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,r$.
15: $\mathbf{fail}$NagError * Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument $⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ had an illegal value.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{nrhs}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdx}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdx}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{nrhs}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdx}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdx}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{nrhs}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.

## 7Accuracy

The bounds returned in ferr are not rigorous, because they are estimated, not computed exactly; but in practice they almost always overestimate the actual error.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

f07thc is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
f07thc makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this function. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

A call to f07thc, for each right-hand side, involves solving a number of systems of linear equations of the form $Ax=b$ or ${A}^{\mathrm{T}}x=b$; the number is usually $4$ or $5$ and never more than $11$. Each solution involves approximately ${n}^{2}$ floating-point operations.
The complex analogue of this function is f07tvc.

## 10Example

This example solves the system of equations $AX=B$ and to compute forward and backward error bounds, where
 $A= ( 4.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 -3.96 -4.87 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.31 -8.02 0.00 -0.27 0.07 -5.95 0.12 ) and B= ( -12.90 -21.50 16.75 14.93 -17.55 6.33 -11.04 8.09 ) .$

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f07thce.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f07thce.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f07thce.r)