# NAG CL Interfacef08yfc (dtgexc)

## 1Purpose

f08yfc reorders the generalized Schur factorization of a matrix pair in real generalized Schur form.

## 2Specification

 #include
 void f08yfc (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_Boolean wantq, Nag_Boolean wantz, Integer n, double a[], Integer pda, double b[], Integer pdb, double q[], Integer pdq, double z[], Integer pdz, Integer *ifst, Integer *ilst, NagError *fail)
The function may be called by the names: f08yfc, nag_lapackeig_dtgexc or nag_dtgexc.

## 3Description

f08yfc reorders the generalized real $n$ by $n$ matrix pair $\left(S,T\right)$ in real generalized Schur form, so that the diagonal element or block of $\left(S,T\right)$ with row index ${i}_{1}$ is moved to row ${i}_{2}$, using an orthogonal equivalence transformation. That is, $S$ and $T$ are factorized as
 $S = Q^ S^ Z^T , T= Q^ T^ Z^T ,$
where $\left(\stackrel{^}{S},\stackrel{^}{T}\right)$ are also in real generalized Schur form.
The pair $\left(S,T\right)$ are in real generalized Schur form if $S$ is block upper triangular with $1$ by $1$ and $2$ by $2$ diagonal blocks and $T$ is upper triangular as returned, for example, by f08xac, or f08xec with ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_Schur}$.
If $S$ and $T$ are the result of a generalized Schur factorization of a matrix pair $\left(A,B\right)$
 $A = QSZT , B= QTZT$
then, optionally, the matrices $Q$ and $Z$ can be updated as $Q\stackrel{^}{Q}$ and $Z\stackrel{^}{Z}$.

## 4References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia https://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{order}$Nag_OrderType Input
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.1.3 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$.
2: $\mathbf{wantq}$Nag_Boolean Input
On entry: if ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, update the left transformation matrix $Q$.
If ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_FALSE}$, do not update $Q$.
3: $\mathbf{wantz}$Nag_Boolean Input
On entry: if ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, update the right transformation matrix $Z$.
If ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_FALSE}$, do not update $Z$.
4: $\mathbf{n}$Integer Input
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrices $S$ and $T$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
5: $\mathbf{a}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pda}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $A$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the matrix $S$ in the pair $\left(S,T\right)$.
On exit: the updated matrix $\stackrel{^}{S}$.
6: $\mathbf{pda}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array a.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
7: $\mathbf{b}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdb}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $B$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the matrix $T$, in the pair $\left(S,T\right)$.
On exit: the updated matrix $\stackrel{^}{T}$
8: $\mathbf{pdb}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
9: $\mathbf{q}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array q must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdq}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Q$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: if ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, the orthogonal matrix $Q$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, the updated matrix $Q\stackrel{^}{Q}$.
If ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_FALSE}$, q is not referenced.
10: $\mathbf{pdq}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array q.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
11: $\mathbf{z}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array z must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdz}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Z$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: if ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, the orthogonal matrix $Z$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, the updated matrix $Z\stackrel{^}{Z}$.
If ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_FALSE}$, z is not referenced.
12: $\mathbf{pdz}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array z.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
13: $\mathbf{ifst}$Integer * Input/Output
14: $\mathbf{ilst}$Integer * Input/Output
On entry: the indices ${i}_{1}$ and ${i}_{2}$ that specify the reordering of the diagonal blocks of $\left(S,T\right)$. The block with row index ifst is moved to row ilst, by a sequence of swapping between adjacent blocks.
On exit: if ifst pointed on entry to the second row of a $2$ by $2$ block, it is changed to point to the first row; ilst always points to the first row of the block in its final position (which may differ from its input value by $+1$ or $-1$).
Constraint: $1\le {\mathbf{ifst}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$ and $1\le {\mathbf{ilst}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$.
15: $\mathbf{fail}$NagError * Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_CONSTRAINT
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{wantq}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{wantz}}=\mathrm{Nag_TRUE}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdq}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdz}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
NE_INT_3
On entry, ${\mathbf{ifst}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{ilst}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: $1\le {\mathbf{ifst}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$ and $1\le {\mathbf{ilst}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_SCHUR
The transformed matrix pair would be too far from generalized Schur form; the problem is ill-conditioned. $\left(S,T\right)$ may have been partially reordered, and ilst points to the first row of the current position of the block being moved.

## 7Accuracy

The computed generalized Schur form is nearly the exact generalized Schur form for nearby matrices $\left(S+E\right)$ and $\left(T+F\right)$, where
 $E2 = O⁡ε S2 and F2= O⁡ε T2 ,$
and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision. See Section 4.11 of Anderson et al. (1999) for further details of error bounds for the generalized nonsymmetric eigenproblem.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

f08yfc makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this function. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

The complex analogue of this function is f08ytc.

## 10Example

This example exchanges blocks $2$ and $1$ of the matrix pair $\left(S,T\right)$, where
 $S = 4.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 and T= 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 .$

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f08yfce.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f08yfce.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f08yfce.r)