# NAG CL Interfacef07cac (dgtsv)

## 1Purpose

f07cac computes the solution to a real system of linear equations
 $AX=B ,$
where $A$ is an $n$ by $n$ tridiagonal matrix and $X$ and $B$ are $n$ by $r$ matrices.

## 2Specification

 #include
 void f07cac (Nag_OrderType order, Integer n, Integer nrhs, double dl[], double d[], double du[], double b[], Integer pdb, NagError *fail)
The function may be called by the names: f07cac, nag_lapacklin_dgtsv or nag_dgtsv.

## 3Description

f07cac uses Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and row interchanges to solve the equations $AX=B$. The matrix $A$ is factorized as $A=PLU$, where $P$ is a permutation matrix, $L$ is unit lower triangular with at most one nonzero subdiagonal element per column, and $U$ is an upper triangular band matrix, with two superdiagonals.
Note that equations ${A}^{\mathrm{T}}X=B$ may be solved by interchanging the order of the arguments du and dl.

## 4References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia https://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{order}$Nag_OrderType Input
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.1.3 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$.
2: $\mathbf{n}$Integer Input
On entry: $n$, the number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
3: $\mathbf{nrhs}$Integer Input
On entry: $r$, the number of right-hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrix $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs}}\ge 0$.
4: $\mathbf{dl}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array dl must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}-1\right)$.
On entry: must contain the $\left(n-1\right)$ subdiagonal elements of the matrix $A$.
On exit: if no constraints are violated, dl is overwritten by the ($n-2$) elements of the second superdiagonal of the upper triangular matrix $U$ from the $LU$ factorization of $A$, in ${\mathbf{dl}}\left[0\right],{\mathbf{dl}}\left[1\right],\dots ,{\mathbf{dl}}\left[n-3\right]$.
5: $\mathbf{d}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array d must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry: must contain the $n$ diagonal elements of the matrix $A$.
On exit: if no constraints are violated, d is overwritten by the $n$ diagonal elements of the upper triangular matrix $U$ from the $LU$ factorization of $A$.
6: $\mathbf{du}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array du must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}-1\right)$.
On entry: must contain the $\left(n-1\right)$ superdiagonal elements of the matrix $A$.
On exit: if no constraints are violated, du is overwritten by the $\left(n-1\right)$ elements of the first superdiagonal of $U$.
7: $\mathbf{b}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Input/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdb}}×{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×{\mathbf{pdb}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $B$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the $n$ by $r$ right-hand side matrix $B$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{fail}}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{code}=$ NE_NOERROR, the $n$ by $r$ solution matrix $X$.
8: $\mathbf{pdb}$Integer Input
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
9: $\mathbf{fail}$NagError * Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{nrhs}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{nrhs}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_SINGULAR
Element $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ of the diagonal is exactly zero, and the solution has not been computed. The factorization has not been completed unless ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.

## 7Accuracy

The computed solution for a single right-hand side, $\stackrel{^}{x}$, satisfies an equation of the form
 $A+E x^ = b ,$
where
 $E1 = Oε A1$
and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision. An approximate error bound for the computed solution is given by
 $x^-x 1 x1 ≤ κA E1 A1 ,$
where $\kappa \left(A\right)={‖{A}^{-1}‖}_{1}{‖A‖}_{1}$, the condition number of $A$ with respect to the solution of the linear equations. See Section 4.4 of Anderson et al. (1999) for further details.
Alternatives to f07cac, which return condition and error estimates are f04bcc and f07cbc.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

f07cac is not threaded in any implementation.

The total number of floating-point operations required to solve the equations $AX=B$ is proportional to $nr$.
The complex analogue of this function is f07cnc.

## 10Example

This example solves the equations
 $Ax=b ,$
where $A$ is the tridiagonal matrix
 $A = 3.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 2.3 -1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 -5.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 -0.9 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -6.0 7.1 and b = 2.7 -0.5 2.6 0.6 2.7 .$

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f07cace.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f07cace.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f07cace.r)