The function may be called by the names: c05axc, nag_roots_contfn_cntin_rcomm or nag_zero_cont_func_cntin_rcomm.
c05axc uses a modified version of an algorithm given in Swift and Lindfield (1978) to compute a zero of a continuous function . The algorithm used is based on a continuation method in which a sequence of problems
are solved, where
(the value of is determined as the algorithm proceeds) and where is your initial estimate for the zero of . For each the current problem is solved by a robust secant iteration using the solution from earlier problems to compute an initial estimate.
You must supply an error tolerance tol. tol is used directly to control the accuracy of solution of the final problem ()
in the continuation method, and is used to control the accuracy in the intermediate problems
Swift A and Lindfield G R (1978) Comparison of a continuation method for the numerical solution of a single nonlinear equation Comput. J.21 359–362
Note: this function uses reverse communication. Its use involves an initial entry, intermediate exits and re-entries, and a final exit, as indicated by the argument ind. Between intermediate exits and re-entries, all arguments other thanfx must remain unchanged.
1: – double *Input/Output
On initial entry: an initial approximation to the zero.
On intermediate exit:
the point at which must be evaluated before re-entry to the function.
On final exit: the final approximation to the zero.
On intermediate re-entry: must contain for the current value of x.
3: – doubleInput
On initial entry: a value that controls the accuracy to which the zero is determined. tol is used in determining the convergence of the secant iteration used at each stage of the continuation process. It is used directly when solving the last problem ( in Section 3), and is used for the problem defined by , . Convergence to the accuracy specified by tol is not guaranteed, and so you are recommended to find the zero using at least two values for tol to check the accuracy obtained.
4: – Nag_ErrorControlInput
On initial entry: indicates the type of error test required, as follows. Solving the problem defined by , , involves computing a sequence of secant iterates . This sequence will be considered to have converged only if:
for some ; here is either tol or as discussed above. Note that there are other subsidiary conditions (not given here) which must also be satisfied before the secant iteration is considered to have converged.
, or .
5: – doubleInput
On initial entry: a factor for use in determining a significant approximation to the derivative of at , the initial value. A number of difference approximations to are calculated using
where and has the same sign as scal. A significance (cancellation) check is made on each difference approximation and the approximation is rejected if insignificant.
, where is the machine precision returned by X02AJC.
must be sufficiently large that on the computer.
6: – doubleCommunication Array
( contains the current , this value may be useful in the event of an error exit.)
On intermediate exit:
contains , or . The calling program must evaluate at x, storing the result in fx, and re-enter c05axc with all other arguments unchanged.
On final exit: contains .
on entry , , , or .
Note: any values you return to c05axc as part of the reverse communication procedure should not include floating-point NaN (Not a Number) or infinity values, since these are not handled by c05axc. If your code inadvertently does return any NaNs or infinities, c05axc is likely to produce unexpected results.
8: – NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
6Error Indicators and Warnings
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument had an illegal value.
Continuation away from the initial point is not possible. This error exit will usually occur if the problem has not been properly posed or the error requirement is extremely stringent.
Current problem in the continuation sequence cannot be solved. Perhaps the original problem had no solution or the continuation path passes through a set of insoluble problems: consider refining the initial approximation to the zero. Alternatively, tol is too small, and the accuracy requirement is too stringent, or too large and the initial approximation too poor.
Final problem (with ) cannot be solved. It is likely that too much accuracy has been requested, or that the zero is at and .
On initial entry, .
Constraint: or .
On intermediate entry, .
Constraint: , or .
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, .
Constraint: (to machine accuracy).
On entry, .
Significant derivatives of cannot be computed. This can happen when is almost constant and nonzero, for any value of scal.
The accuracy of the approximation to the zero depends on tol and ir. In general decreasing tol will give more accurate results. Care must be exercised when using the relative error criterion ().
For most problems, the time taken on each call to c05axc will be negligible compared with the time spent evaluating between calls to c05axc. However, the initial value of x and the choice of tol will clearly affect the timing. The closer that x is to the root, the less evaluations of required. The effect of the choice of tol will not be large, in general, unless tol is very small, in which case the timing will increase.
This example calculates a zero of with initial approximation , and and .