# NAG C Library Function Document

## 1Purpose

nag_robust_trimmed_1var (g07ddc) calculates the trimmed and Winsorized means of a sample and estimates of the variances of the two means.

## 2Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_robust_trimmed_1var (Integer n, const double x[], double alpha, double *tmean, double *wmean, double *tvar, double *wvar, Integer *k, double sx[], NagError *fail)

## 3Description

nag_robust_trimmed_1var (g07ddc) calculates the $\alpha$-trimmed mean and $\alpha$-Winsorized mean for a given $\alpha$, as described below.
Let ${x}_{\mathit{i}}$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,n$, represent the $n$ sample observations sorted into ascending order. Let $k=\left[\alpha n\right]$ where $\left[y\right]$ represents the integer nearest to $y$; if $2k=n$ then $k$ is reduced by 1.
Then the trimmed mean is defined as:
 $x-t = 1 n-2k ∑ i=k+1 n-k xi ,$
and the Winsorized mean is defined as:
 $x-w = 1n ∑ i=k+1 n-k xi + kx k+1 + kx n-k .$
nag_robust_trimmed_1var (g07ddc) then calculates the Winsorized variance about the trimmed and Winsorized means respectively and divides by $n$ to obtain estimates of the variances of the above two means.
Thus we have
 $Estimate of ​ var x - t = 1 n 2 ∑ i = k + 1 n-k x i - x - t 2 + k x k+1 - x - t 2 + k x n-k - x - t 2$
and
 $Estimate of ​ var x - w = 1 n 2 ∑ i = k + 1 n-k x i - x - w 2 + k x k+1 - x - w 2 + k x n-k - x - w 2 .$
Hampel F R, Ronchetti E M, Rousseeuw P J and Stahel W A (1986) Robust Statistics. The Approach Based on Influence Functions Wiley
Huber P J (1981) Robust Statistics Wiley

## 5Arguments

1:    $\mathbf{n}$IntegerInput
On entry: the number of observations, $n$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 2$.
2:    $\mathbf{x}\left[{\mathbf{n}}\right]$const doubleInput
On entry: the sample observations, ${x}_{\mathit{i}}$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,n$.
3:    $\mathbf{alpha}$doubleInput
On entry: the proportion of observations to be trimmed at each end of the sorted sample, $\alpha$.
Constraint: $0.0\le {\mathbf{alpha}}<0.5$.
4:    $\mathbf{tmean}$double *Output
On exit: the $\alpha$-trimmed mean, ${\stackrel{-}{x}}_{t}$.
5:    $\mathbf{wmean}$double *Output
On exit: the $\alpha$-Winsorized mean, ${\stackrel{-}{x}}_{w}$.
6:    $\mathbf{tvar}$double *Output
On exit: contains an estimate of the variance of the trimmed mean.
7:    $\mathbf{wvar}$double *Output
On exit: contains an estimate of the variance of the Winsorized mean.
8:    $\mathbf{k}$Integer *Output
On exit: contains the number of observations trimmed at each end, $k$.
9:    $\mathbf{sx}\left[{\mathbf{n}}\right]$doubleOutput
On exit: contains the sample observations sorted into ascending order.
10:  $\mathbf{fail}$NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_INT_ARG_LT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 2$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
NE_REAL_ARG_GE
On entry, alpha must not be greater than or equal to 0.5: ${\mathbf{alpha}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
NE_REAL_ARG_LT
On entry, alpha must not be less than 0.0: ${\mathbf{alpha}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.

## 7Accuracy

The results should be accurate to within a small multiple of machine precision.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

nag_robust_trimmed_1var (g07ddc) is not threaded in any implementation.

The time taken by nag_robust_trimmed_1var (g07ddc) is proportional to $n$.

## 10Example

The following program finds the $\alpha$-trimmed mean and $\alpha$-Winsorized mean for a sample of 16 observations where $\alpha =0.15$. The estimates of the variances of the above two means are also calculated.

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (g07ddce.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (g07ddce.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (g07ddce.r)