# NAG C Library Function Document

## 1Purpose

nag_dspev (f08gac) computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, all the eigenvectors of a real $n$ by $n$ symmetric matrix $A$ in packed storage.

## 2Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_dspev (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_JobType job, Nag_UploType uplo, Integer n, double ap[], double w[], double z[], Integer pdz, NagError *fail)

## 3Description

The symmetric matrix $A$ is first reduced to tridiagonal form, using orthogonal similarity transformations, and then the $QR$ algorithm is applied to the tridiagonal matrix to compute the eigenvalues and (optionally) the eigenvectors.

## 4References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## 5Arguments

1:    $\mathbf{order}$Nag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.3.1.3 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$.
2:    $\mathbf{job}$Nag_JobTypeInput
On entry: indicates whether eigenvectors are computed.
${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$
Only eigenvalues are computed.
${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$.
3:    $\mathbf{uplo}$Nag_UploTypeInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$, the upper triangular part of $A$ is stored.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$, the lower triangular part of $A$ is stored.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$.
4:    $\mathbf{n}$IntegerInput
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
5:    $\mathbf{ap}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array ap must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×\left({\mathbf{n}}+1\right)/2\right)$.
On entry: the upper or lower triangle of the $n$ by $n$ symmetric matrix $A$, packed by rows or columns.
The storage of elements ${A}_{ij}$ depends on the order and uplo arguments as follows:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$ and ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$,
${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{ap}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×j/2+i-1\right]$, for $i\le j$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$ and ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$,
${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{ap}}\left[\left(2n-j\right)×\left(j-1\right)/2+i-1\right]$, for $i\ge j$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ and ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$,
${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{ap}}\left[\left(2n-i\right)×\left(i-1\right)/2+j-1\right]$, for $i\le j$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ and ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$,
${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{ap}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×i/2+j-1\right]$, for $i\ge j$.
On exit: ap is overwritten by the values generated during the reduction to tridiagonal form. The elements of the diagonal and the off-diagonal of the tridiagonal matrix overwrite the corresponding elements of $A$.
6:    $\mathbf{w}\left[{\mathbf{n}}\right]$doubleOutput
On exit: the eigenvalues in ascending order.
7:    $\mathbf{z}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleOutput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array z must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdz}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Z$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$, z contains the orthonormal eigenvectors of the matrix $A$, with the $i$th column of $Z$ holding the eigenvector associated with ${\mathbf{w}}\left[i-1\right]$.
If ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$, z is not referenced.
8:    $\mathbf{pdz}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array z.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
9:    $\mathbf{fail}$NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 2.3.1.2 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_CONVERGENCE
The algorithm failed to converge; $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ off-diagonal elements of an intermediate tridiagonal form did not converge to zero.
NE_ENUM_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{job}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdz}}>0$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 2.7.6 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 2.7.5 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.

## 7Accuracy

The computed eigenvalues and eigenvectors are exact for a nearby matrix $\left(A+E\right)$, where
 $E2 = Oε A2 ,$
and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision. See Section 4.7 of Anderson et al. (1999) for further details.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

nag_dspev (f08gac) is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
nag_dspev (f08gac) makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the x06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this function. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

The total number of floating-point operations is proportional to ${n}^{3}$.
The complex analogue of this function is nag_zhpev (f08gnc).

## 10Example

This example finds all the eigenvalues of the symmetric matrix
 $A = 1 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 ,$
together with approximate error bounds for the computed eigenvalues.

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f08gace.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f08gace.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f08gace.r)