NAG Library Routine Document
f01fjf (complex_gen_matrix_log)
1
Purpose
f01fjf computes the principal matrix logarithm, $\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$, of a complex $n$ by $n$ matrix $A$, with no eigenvalues on the closed negative real line.
2
Specification
Fortran Interface
Integer, Intent (In)  ::  n, lda  Integer, Intent (Inout)  ::  ifail  Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout)  ::  a(lda,*) 

C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void 
f01fjf_ (const Integer *n, Complex a[], const Integer *lda, Integer *ifail) 

3
Description
Any nonsingular matrix $A$ has infinitely many logarithms. For a matrix with no eigenvalues on the closed negative real line, the principal logarithm is the unique logarithm whose spectrum lies in the strip $\left\{z:\pi <\mathrm{Im}\left(z\right)<\pi \right\}$. If $A$ is nonsingular but has eigenvalues on the negative real line, the principal logarithm is not defined, but f01fjf will return a nonprincipal logarithm.
$\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$ is computed using the inverse scaling and squaring algorithm for the matrix logarithm described in
Al–Mohy and Higham (2011).
4
References
Al–Mohy A H and Higham N J (2011) Improved inverse scaling and squaring algorithms for the matrix logarithm SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 34(4) C152–C169
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA
5
Arguments
 1: $\mathbf{n}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
 2: $\mathbf{a}\left({\mathbf{lda}},*\right)$ – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output

Note: the second dimension of the array
a
must be at least
${\mathbf{n}}$.
On entry: the $n$ by $n$ matrix $A$.
On exit: the $n$ by $n$ principal matrix logarithm, $\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$, unless ${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{2}}$, in which case a nonprincipal logarithm is returned.
 3: $\mathbf{lda}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: the first dimension of the array
a as declared in the (sub)program from which
f01fjf is called.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{lda}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$.
 4: $\mathbf{ifail}$ – IntegerInput/Output

On entry:
ifail must be set to
$0$,
$1\text{ or}1$. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to
Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value
$1\text{ or}1$ is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value
$1$ is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is
$0$.
When the value $\mathbf{1}\text{ or}\mathbf{1}$ is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit:
${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see
Section 6).
6
Error Indicators and Warnings
If on entry
${\mathbf{ifail}}=0$ or
$1$, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by
x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$

$A$ is singular so the logarithm cannot be computed.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=2$

$A$ was found to have eigenvalues on the negative real line. The principal logarithm is not defined in this case, so a nonprincipal logarithm was returned.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$

$\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$ has been computed using an IEEE double precision Padé approximant, although the arithmetic precision is higher than IEEE double precision.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=4$

An unexpected internal error has occurred. Please contact
NAG.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$

On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$

On entry, ${\mathbf{lda}}=\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{lda}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=99$
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please
contact
NAG.
See
Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=399$
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See
Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=999$
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See
Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
7
Accuracy
For a normal matrix
$A$ (for which
${A}^{\mathrm{H}}A=A{A}^{\mathrm{H}}$), the Schur decomposition is diagonal and the algorithm reduces to evaluating the logarithm of the eigenvalues of
$A$ and then constructing
$\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$ using the Schur vectors. This should give a very accurate result. In general, however, no error bounds are available for the algorithm. See
Al–Mohy and Higham (2011) and Section 9.4 of
Higham (2008) for details and further discussion.
The sensitivity of the computation of $\mathrm{log}\left(A\right)$ is worst when $A$ has an eigenvalue of very small modulus or has a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues lying close to the negative real axis.
If estimates of the condition number of the matrix logarithm are required then
f01kjf should be used.
8
Parallelism and Performance
f01fjf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
f01fjf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the
X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the
Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementationspecific information.
The cost of the algorithm is
$O\left({n}^{3}\right)$ floatingpoint operations (see
Al–Mohy and Higham (2011)). The
complex
allocatable memory required is approximately
$3\times {n}^{2}$.
If the Fréchet derivative of the matrix logarithm is required then
f01kkf should be used.
f01ejf can be used to find the principal logarithm of a real matrix.
10
Example
This example finds the principal matrix logarithm of the matrix
10.1
Program Text
Program Text (f01fjfe.f90)
10.2
Program Data
Program Data (f01fjfe.d)
10.3
Program Results
Program Results (f01fjfe.r)