# NAG Library Function Document

## 1Purpose

nag_dggsvp3 (f08vgc) uses orthogonal transformations to simultaneously reduce the $m$ by $n$ matrix $A$ and the $p$ by $n$ matrix $B$ to upper triangular form. This factorization is usually used as a preprocessing step for computing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD). For sufficiently large problems, a blocked algorithm is used to make best use of level 3 BLAS.

## 2Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_dggsvp3 (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_ComputeUType jobu, Nag_ComputeVType jobv, Nag_ComputeQType jobq, Integer m, Integer p, Integer n, double a[], Integer pda, double b[], Integer pdb, double tola, double tolb, Integer *k, Integer *l, double u[], Integer pdu, double v[], Integer pdv, double q[], Integer pdq, NagError *fail)

## 3Description

nag_dggsvp3 (f08vgc) computes orthogonal matrices $U$, $V$ and $Q$ such that
where the $k$ by $k$ matrix ${A}_{12}$ and $l$ by $l$ matrix ${B}_{13}$ are nonsingular upper triangular; ${A}_{23}$ is $l$ by $l$ upper triangular if $m-k-l\ge 0$ and is $\left(m-k\right)$ by $l$ upper trapezoidal otherwise. $\left(k+l\right)$ is the effective numerical rank of the $\left(m+p\right)$ by $n$ matrix ${\left(\begin{array}{cc}{A}^{\mathrm{T}}& {B}^{\mathrm{T}}\end{array}\right)}^{\mathrm{T}}$.
This decomposition is usually used as the preprocessing step for computing the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD), see function nag_dtgsja (f08yec); the two steps are combined in nag_dggsvd3 (f08vcc).

## 4References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (2012) Matrix Computations (4th Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## 5Arguments

1:    $\mathbf{order}$Nag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.3.1.3 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$.
2:    $\mathbf{jobu}$Nag_ComputeUTypeInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$, the orthogonal matrix $U$ is computed.
If ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotU}$, $U$ is not computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_NotU}$.
3:    $\mathbf{jobv}$Nag_ComputeVTypeInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$, the orthogonal matrix $V$ is computed.
If ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotV}$, $V$ is not computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_NotV}$.
4:    $\mathbf{jobq}$Nag_ComputeQTypeInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$, the orthogonal matrix $Q$ is computed.
If ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, $Q$ is not computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$.
5:    $\mathbf{m}$IntegerInput
On entry: $m$, the number of rows of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{m}}\ge 0$.
6:    $\mathbf{p}$IntegerInput
On entry: $p$, the number of rows of the matrix $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{p}}\ge 0$.
7:    $\mathbf{n}$IntegerInput
On entry: $n$, the number of columns of the matrices $A$ and $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
8:    $\mathbf{a}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pda}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}×{\mathbf{pda}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $A$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the $m$ by $n$ matrix $A$.
On exit: contains the triangular (or trapezoidal) matrix described in Section 3.
9:    $\mathbf{pda}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array a.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
10:  $\mathbf{b}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdb}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{p}}×{\mathbf{pdb}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $B$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the $p$ by $n$ matrix $B$.
On exit: contains the triangular matrix described in Section 3.
11:  $\mathbf{pdb}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{p}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
12:  $\mathbf{tola}$doubleInput
13:  $\mathbf{tolb}$doubleInput
On entry: tola and tolb are the thresholds to determine the effective numerical rank of matrix $B$ and a subblock of $A$. Generally, they are set to
 $tola=maxm,nAε, tolb=maxp,nBε,$
where $\epsilon$ is the machine precision.
The size of tola and tolb may affect the size of backward errors of the decomposition.
14:  $\mathbf{k}$Integer *Output
15:  $\mathbf{l}$Integer *Output
On exit: k and l specify the dimension of the subblocks $k$ and $l$ as described in Section 3; $\left(k+l\right)$ is the effective numerical rank of ${\left(\begin{array}{cc}{{\mathbf{a}}}^{\mathrm{T}}& {{\mathbf{b}}}^{\mathrm{T}}\end{array}\right)}^{\mathrm{T}}$.
16:  $\mathbf{u}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleOutput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array u must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdu}}×{\mathbf{m}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $U$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{u}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdu}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{u}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdu}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$, u contains the orthogonal matrix $U$.
If ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotU}$, u is not referenced.
17:  $\mathbf{pdu}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array u.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$, ${\mathbf{pdu}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdu}}\ge 1$.
18:  $\mathbf{v}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleOutput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array v must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdv}}×{\mathbf{p}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $V$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{v}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdv}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{v}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdv}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$, v contains the orthogonal matrix $V$.
If ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotV}$, v is not referenced.
19:  $\mathbf{pdv}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array v.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$, ${\mathbf{pdv}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{p}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdv}}\ge 1$.
20:  $\mathbf{q}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$doubleOutput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array q must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdq}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$;
• $1$ otherwise.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Q$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$, q contains the orthogonal matrix $Q$.
If ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, q is not referenced.
21:  $\mathbf{pdq}$IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array q.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
22:  $\mathbf{fail}$NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 2.3.1.2 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_ENUM_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{jobq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{jobq}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeQ}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{jobu}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdu}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{jobu}}=\mathrm{Nag_AllU}$, ${\mathbf{pdu}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdu}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{jobv}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdv}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{p}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{jobv}}=\mathrm{Nag_ComputeV}$, ${\mathbf{pdv}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{p}}\right)$;
otherwise ${\mathbf{pdv}}\ge 1$.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{m}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{p}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{p}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdq}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdu}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdu}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdv}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdv}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{p}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{p}}\right)$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 2.7.6 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 2.7.5 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.

## 7Accuracy

The computed factorization is nearly the exact factorization for nearby matrices $\left(A+E\right)$ and $\left(B+F\right)$, where
 $E2 = OεA2 and F2= OεB2,$
and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

nag_dggsvp3 (f08vgc) is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
nag_dggsvp3 (f08vgc) makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the x06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this function. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

This function replaces the deprecated function nag_dggsvp (f08vec) which used an unblocked algorithm and therefore did not make best use of level 3 BLAS functions.
The complex analogue of this function is nag_zggsvp3 (f08vuc).

## 10Example

This example finds the generalized factorization
 $A = UΣ1 0 S QT , B= VΣ2 0 T QT ,$
of the matrix pair $\left(\begin{array}{cc}A& B\end{array}\right)$, where
 $A = 123 321 456 788 and B= -2-33 465 .$

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f08vgce.c)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f08vgce.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f08vgce.r)

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2017