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Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

# NAG Toolbox: nag_lapack_dpptrs (f07ge)

## Purpose

nag_lapack_dpptrs (f07ge) solves a real symmetric positive definite system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides,
 $AX=B ,$
where $A$ has been factorized by nag_lapack_dpptrf (f07gd), using packed storage.

## Syntax

[b, info] = f07ge(uplo, ap, b, 'n', n, 'nrhs_p', nrhs_p)
[b, info] = nag_lapack_dpptrs(uplo, ap, b, 'n', n, 'nrhs_p', nrhs_p)

## Description

nag_lapack_dpptrs (f07ge) is used to solve a real symmetric positive definite system of linear equations $AX=B$, the function must be preceded by a call to nag_lapack_dpptrf (f07gd) which computes the Cholesky factorization of $A$, using packed storage. The solution $X$ is computed by forward and backward substitution.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$, $A={U}^{\mathrm{T}}U$, where $U$ is upper triangular; the solution $X$ is computed by solving ${U}^{\mathrm{T}}Y=B$ and then $UX=Y$.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$, $A=L{L}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $L$ is lower triangular; the solution $X$ is computed by solving $LY=B$ and then ${L}^{\mathrm{T}}X=Y$.

## References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## Parameters

### Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     $\mathrm{uplo}$ – string (length ≥ 1)
Specifies how $A$ has been factorized.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$
$A={U}^{\mathrm{T}}U$, where $U$ is upper triangular.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$
$A=L{L}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $L$ is lower triangular.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$ or $\text{'L'}$.
2:     $\mathrm{ap}\left(:\right)$ – double array
The dimension of the array ap must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×\left({\mathbf{n}}+1\right)/2\right)$
The Cholesky factor of $A$ stored in packed form, as returned by nag_lapack_dpptrf (f07gd).
3:     $\mathrm{b}\left(\mathit{ldb},:\right)$ – double array
The first dimension of the array b must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The second dimension of the array b must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs_p}}\right)$.
The $n$ by $r$ right-hand side matrix $B$.

### Optional Input Parameters

1:     $\mathrm{n}$int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the first dimension of the array ap and the second dimension of the array ap. (An error is raised if these dimensions are not equal.)
$n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
2:     $\mathrm{nrhs_p}$int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the second dimension of the array b.
$r$, the number of right-hand sides.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs_p}}\ge 0$.

### Output Parameters

1:     $\mathrm{b}\left(\mathit{ldb},:\right)$ – double array
The first dimension of the array b will be $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The second dimension of the array b will be $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs_p}}\right)$.
The $n$ by $r$ solution matrix $X$.
2:     $\mathrm{info}$int64int32nag_int scalar
${\mathbf{info}}=0$ unless the function detects an error (see Error Indicators and Warnings).

## Error Indicators and Warnings

${\mathbf{info}}<0$
If ${\mathbf{info}}=-i$, argument $i$ had an illegal value. An explanatory message is output, and execution of the program is terminated.

## Accuracy

For each right-hand side vector $b$, the computed solution $x$ is the exact solution of a perturbed system of equations $\left(A+E\right)x=b$, where
• if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$, $\left|E\right|\le c\left(n\right)\epsilon \left|{U}^{\mathrm{T}}\right|\left|U\right|$;
• if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$, $\left|E\right|\le c\left(n\right)\epsilon \left|L\right|\left|{L}^{\mathrm{T}}\right|$,
$c\left(n\right)$ is a modest linear function of $n$, and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision
If $\stackrel{^}{x}$ is the true solution, then the computed solution $x$ satisfies a forward error bound of the form
 $x-x^∞ x∞ ≤cncondA,xε$
where $\mathrm{cond}\left(A,x\right)={‖\left|{A}^{-1}\right|\left|A\right|\left|x\right|‖}_{\infty }/{‖x‖}_{\infty }\le \mathrm{cond}\left(A\right)={‖\left|{A}^{-1}\right|\left|A\right|‖}_{\infty }\le {\kappa }_{\infty }\left(A\right)$.
Note that $\mathrm{cond}\left(A,x\right)$ can be much smaller than $\mathrm{cond}\left(A\right)$.
Forward and backward error bounds can be computed by calling nag_lapack_dpprfs (f07gh), and an estimate for ${\kappa }_{\infty }\left(A\right)$ ($\text{}={\kappa }_{1}\left(A\right)$) can be obtained by calling nag_lapack_dppcon (f07gg).

The total number of floating-point operations is approximately $2{n}^{2}r$.
This function may be followed by a call to nag_lapack_dpprfs (f07gh) to refine the solution and return an error estimate.
The complex analogue of this function is nag_lapack_zpptrs (f07gs).

## Example

This example solves the system of equations $AX=B$, where
 $A= 4.16 -3.12 0.56 -0.10 -3.12 5.03 -0.83 1.18 0.56 -0.83 0.76 0.34 -0.10 1.18 0.34 1.18 and B= 8.70 8.30 -13.35 2.13 1.89 1.61 -4.14 5.00 .$
Here $A$ is symmetric positive definite, stored in packed form, and must first be factorized by nag_lapack_dpptrf (f07gd).
```function f07ge_example

fprintf('f07ge example results\n\n');

% Symmetric matrix A, lower triangular part packed in ap
uplo = 'L';
n = int64(4);
ap = [4.16 -3.12  0.56 -0.10 ...
5.03 -0.83  1.18 ...
0.76  0.34 1.18];

[L, info] = f07gd( ...
uplo, n, ap);

% Rhs
b = [  8.70, 8.30;
-13.35, 2.13;
1.89, 1.61;
-4.14, 5.00];

% Solve
[x, info] = f07ge( ...
uplo, L, b);

disp('Solution(s)');
disp(x);

```
```f07ge example results

Solution(s)
1.0000    4.0000
-1.0000    3.0000
2.0000    2.0000
-3.0000    1.0000

```