g05 Chapter Contents
g05 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

# NAG Library Function Documentnag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc)

## 1  Purpose

nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) sets up a reference vector and generates an array of pseudorandom numbers from a Normal (Gaussian) copula with covariance matrix $C$.

## 2  Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_rand_copula_normal (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_ModeRNG mode, Integer n, Integer m, const double c[], Integer pdc, double r[], Integer lr, Integer state[], double x[], Integer pdx, NagError *fail)

## 3  Description

The Gaussian copula, $G$, is defined by
 $G u1 , u2 ,…, um ; C = ΦC ϕ C11 -1 u1 , ϕ C22 -1 u2 ,…, ϕ Cmm -1 um$
where $m$ is the number of dimensions, ${\Phi }_{C}$ is the multivariate Normal density function with mean zero and covariance matrix $C$ and ${\varphi }_{{C}_{\mathit{ii}}}^{-1}$ is the inverse of the univariate Normal density function with mean zero and variance ${C}_{\mathit{ii}}$.
nag_rand_matrix_multi_normal (g05rzc) is used to generate a vector from a multivariate Normal distribution and nag_prob_normal (g01eac) is used to convert each element of that vector into a uniformly distributed value between zero and one.
One of the initialization functions nag_rand_init_repeatable (g05kfc) (for a repeatable sequence if computed sequentially) or nag_rand_init_nonrepeatable (g05kgc) (for a non-repeatable sequence) must be called prior to the first call to nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc).

## 4  References

Nelsen R B (1998) An Introduction to Copulas. Lecture Notes in Statistics 139 Springer
Sklar A (1973) Random variables: joint distribution functions and copulas Kybernetika 9 499–460

## 5  Arguments

1:     orderNag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.2.1.3 in the Essential Introduction for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or Nag_ColMajor.
2:     modeNag_ModeRNGInput
On entry: a code for selecting the operation to be performed by the function.
${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeReference}$
Set up reference vector only.
${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_GenerateFromReference}$
Generate variates using reference vector set up in a prior call to nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc).
${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$
Set up reference vector and generate variates.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeReference}$, $\mathrm{Nag_GenerateFromReference}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$.
3:     nIntegerInput
On entry: $n$, the number of random variates required.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
4:     mIntegerInput
On entry: $m$, the number of dimensions of the distribution.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{m}}>0$.
5:     c[$\mathit{dim}$]const doubleInput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array c must be at least ${\mathbf{pdc}}×{\mathbf{m}}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $C$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{c}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdc}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{c}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdc}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the covariance matrix of the distribution. Only the upper triangle need be set.
Constraint: $C$ must be positive semidefinite to machine precision.
6:     pdcIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array c.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdc}}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
7:     r[lr]doubleCommunication Array
On entry: if ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_GenerateFromReference}$, the reference vector as set up by nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) in a previous call with ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeReference}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeReference}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$, the reference vector that can be used in subsequent calls to nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) with ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_GenerateFromReference}$.
8:     lrIntegerInput
On entry: the dimension of the array r. If ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_GenerateFromReference}$, it must be the same as the value of lr specified in the prior call to nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) with ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeReference}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{lr}}\ge {\mathbf{m}}×\left({\mathbf{m}}+1\right)+1$.
9:     state[$\mathit{dim}$]IntegerCommunication Array
Note: the actual argument supplied must be the array state supplied to the initialization functions nag_rand_init_repeatable (g05kfc) or nag_rand_init_nonrepeatable (g05kgc).
On entry: contains information on the selected base generator and its current state.
On exit: contains updated information on the state of the generator.
10:   x[$\mathit{dim}$]doubleOutput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array x must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdx}}×{\mathbf{m}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}×{\mathbf{pdx}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
Where ${\mathbf{X}}\left(i,j\right)$ appears in this document, it refers to the array element
• ${\mathbf{x}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdx}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{x}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdx}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On exit: the array of values from a multivariate Gaussian copula, with ${\mathbf{X}}\left(i,j\right)$ holding the $j$th dimension for the $i$th variate.
11:   pdxIntegerInput
On entry: the stride used in the array x.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$;
• if ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
12:   failNagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6 in the Essential Introduction).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_INT
On entry, lr is not large enough, ${\mathbf{lr}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$: minimum length required $\text{}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{m}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdc}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdc}}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdx}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdx}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdx}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
NE_INVALID_STATE
On entry, state vector has been corrupted or not initialized.
NE_POS_DEF
On entry, the covariance matrix $C$ is not positive semidefinite to machine precision.
NE_PREV_CALL
m is not the same as when r was set up in a previous call.
Previous value of ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{m}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.

## 7  Accuracy

See Section 7 in nag_rand_matrix_multi_normal (g05rzc) for an indication of the accuracy of the underlying multivariate Normal distribution.

## 8  Further Comments

The time taken by nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) is of order $n{m}^{3}$.
It is recommended that the diagonal elements of $C$ should not differ too widely in order of magnitude. This may be achieved by scaling the variables if necessary. The actual matrix decomposed is $C+E=L{L}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $E$ is a diagonal matrix with small positive diagonal elements. This ensures that, even when $C$ is singular, or nearly singular, the Cholesky factor $L$ corresponds to a positive definite covariance matrix that agrees with $C$ within machine precision.

## 9  Example

This example prints ten pseudorandom observations from a Normal copula with covariance matrix
 $1.69 0.39 -1.86 0.07 0.39 98.01 -7.07 -0.71 -1.86 -7.07 11.56 0.03 0.07 -0.71 0.03 0.01 ,$
generated by nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc). All ten observations are generated by a single call to nag_rand_copula_normal (g05rdc) with ${\mathbf{mode}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitializeAndGenerate}$. The random number generator is initialized by nag_rand_init_repeatable (g05kfc).

### 9.1  Program Text

Program Text (g05rdce.c)

None.

### 9.3  Program Results

Program Results (g05rdce.r)