f08 Chapter Contents
f08 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

# NAG Library Function Documentnag_zheev (f08fnc)

## 1  Purpose

nag_zheev (f08fnc) computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, all the eigenvectors of a complex $n$ by $n$ Hermitian matrix $A$.

## 2  Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_zheev (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_JobType job, Nag_UploType uplo, Integer n, Complex a[], Integer pda, double w[], NagError *fail)

## 3  Description

The Hermitian matrix $A$ is first reduced to real tridiagonal form, using unitary similarity transformations, and then the $QR$ algorithm is applied to the tridiagonal matrix to compute the eigenvalues and (optionally) the eigenvectors.

## 4  References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## 5  Arguments

1:     orderNag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.2.1.3 in the Essential Introduction for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or Nag_ColMajor.
2:     jobNag_JobTypeInput
On entry: indicates whether eigenvectors are computed.
${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$
Only eigenvalues are computed.
${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$.
3:     uploNag_UploTypeInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$, the upper triangular part of $A$ is stored.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$, the lower triangular part of $A$ is stored.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$.
4:     nIntegerInput
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
5:     a[$\mathit{dim}$]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pda}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry: the $n$ by $n$ Hermitian matrix $A$.
If ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$, ${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+i-1\right]$.
If ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$, ${A}_{ij}$ is stored in ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+j-1\right]$.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$, the upper triangular part of $A$ must be stored and the elements of the array below the diagonal are not referenced.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$, the lower triangular part of $A$ must be stored and the elements of the array above the diagonal are not referenced.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_DoBoth}$, then a contains the orthonormal eigenvectors of the matrix $A$.
If ${\mathbf{job}}=\mathrm{Nag_EigVals}$, then on exit the lower triangle (if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Lower}$) or the upper triangle (if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\mathrm{Nag_Upper}$) of a, including the diagonal, is overwritten.
6:     pdaIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array a.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
7:     w[n]doubleOutput
On exit: the eigenvalues in ascending order.
8:     failNagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6 in the Essential Introduction).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_CONVERGENCE
The algorithm failed to converge; $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ off-diagonal elements of an intermediate tridiagonal form did not converge to zero.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.

## 7  Accuracy

The computed eigenvalues and eigenvectors are exact for a nearby matrix $\left(A+E\right)$, where
 $E2 = Oε A2 ,$
and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision. See Section 4.7 of Anderson et al. (1999) for further details.

## 8  Further Comments

Each eigenvector is normalized so that the element of largest absolute value is real and positive.
The total number of floating point operations is proportional to ${n}^{3}$.
The real analogue of this function is nag_dsyev (f08fac).

## 9  Example

This example finds all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hermitian matrix
 $A = 1 2-i 3-i 4-i 2+i 2 3-2i 4-2i 3+i 3+2i 3 4-3i 4+i 4+2i 4+3i 4 ,$
together with approximate error bounds for the computed eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

### 9.1  Program Text

Program Text (f08fnce.c)

### 9.2  Program Data

Program Data (f08fnce.d)

### 9.3  Program Results

Program Results (f08fnce.r)