nag_zgerfs (f07avc) (PDF version)
f07 Chapter Contents
f07 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

NAG Library Function Document

nag_zgerfs (f07avc)

+ Contents

    1  Purpose
    7  Accuracy

1  Purpose

nag_zgerfs (f07avc) returns error bounds for the solution of a complex system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides, AX=B, ATX=B or AHX=B. It improves the solution by iterative refinement, in order to reduce the backward error as much as possible.

2  Specification

#include <nag.h>
#include <nagf07.h>
void  nag_zgerfs (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_TransType trans, Integer n, Integer nrhs, const Complex a[], Integer pda, const Complex af[], Integer pdaf, const Integer ipiv[], const Complex b[], Integer pdb, Complex x[], Integer pdx, double ferr[], double berr[], NagError *fail)

3  Description

nag_zgerfs (f07avc) returns the backward errors and estimated bounds on the forward errors for the solution of a complex system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides AX=B, ATX=B or AHX=B. The function handles each right-hand side vector (stored as a column of the matrix B) independently, so we describe the function of nag_zgerfs (f07avc) in terms of a single right-hand side b and solution x.
Given a computed solution x, the function computes the component-wise backward error β. This is the size of the smallest relative perturbation in each element of A and b such that x is the exact solution of a perturbed system
A+δAx=b+δb δaijβaij   and   δbiβbi .
Then the function estimates a bound for the component-wise forward error in the computed solution, defined by:
maxi xi - x^i / maxi xi
where x^ is the true solution.
For details of the method, see the f07 Chapter Introduction.

4  References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

5  Arguments

1:     orderNag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by order=Nag_RowMajor. See Section 3.2.1.3 in the Essential Introduction for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: order=Nag_RowMajor or Nag_ColMajor.
2:     transNag_TransTypeInput
On entry: indicates the form of the linear equations for which X is the computed solution as follows:
trans=Nag_NoTrans
The linear equations are of the form AX=B.
trans=Nag_Trans
The linear equations are of the form ATX=B.
trans=Nag_ConjTrans
The linear equations are of the form AHX=B.
Constraint: trans=Nag_NoTrans, Nag_Trans or Nag_ConjTrans.
3:     nIntegerInput
On entry: n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.
4:     nrhsIntegerInput
On entry: r, the number of right-hand sides.
Constraint: nrhs0.
5:     a[dim]const ComplexInput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least max1,pda×n.
The i,jth element of the matrix A is stored in
  • a[j-1×pda+i-1] when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • a[i-1×pda+j-1] when order=Nag_RowMajor.
On entry: the n by n original matrix A as supplied to nag_zgetrf (f07arc).
6:     pdaIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array a.
Constraint: pdamax1,n.
7:     af[dim]const ComplexInput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array af must be at least max1,pdaf×n.
The i,jth element of the matrix is stored in
  • af[j-1×pdaf+i-1] when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • af[i-1×pdaf+j-1] when order=Nag_RowMajor.
On entry: the LU factorization of A, as returned by nag_zgetrf (f07arc).
8:     pdafIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array af.
Constraint: pdafmax1,n.
9:     ipiv[dim]const IntegerInput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array ipiv must be at least max1,n.
On entry: the pivot indices, as returned by nag_zgetrf (f07arc).
10:   b[dim]const ComplexInput
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least
  • max1,pdb×nrhs when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • max1,n×pdb when order=Nag_RowMajor.
The i,jth element of the matrix B is stored in
  • b[j-1×pdb+i-1] when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • b[i-1×pdb+j-1] when order=Nag_RowMajor.
On entry: the n by r right-hand side matrix B.
11:   pdbIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraints:
  • if order=Nag_ColMajor, pdbmax1,n;
  • if order=Nag_RowMajor, pdbmax1,nrhs.
12:   x[dim]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array x must be at least
  • max1,pdx×nrhs when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • max1,n×pdx when order=Nag_RowMajor.
The i,jth element of the matrix X is stored in
  • x[j-1×pdx+i-1] when order=Nag_ColMajor;
  • x[i-1×pdx+j-1] when order=Nag_RowMajor.
On entry: the n by r solution matrix X, as returned by nag_zgetrs (f07asc).
On exit: the improved solution matrix X.
13:   pdxIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array x.
Constraints:
  • if order=Nag_ColMajor, pdxmax1,n;
  • if order=Nag_RowMajor, pdxmax1,nrhs.
14:   ferr[nrhs]doubleOutput
On exit: ferr[j-1] contains an estimated error bound for the jth solution vector, that is, the jth column of X, for j=1,2,,r.
15:   berr[nrhs]doubleOutput
On exit: berr[j-1] contains the component-wise backward error bound β for the jth solution vector, that is, the jth column of X, for j=1,2,,r.
16:   failNagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6 in the Essential Introduction).

6  Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
NE_BAD_PARAM
On entry, argument value had an illegal value.
NE_INT
On entry, n=value.
Constraint: n0.
On entry, nrhs=value.
Constraint: nrhs0.
On entry, pda=value.
Constraint: pda>0.
On entry, pdaf=value.
Constraint: pdaf>0.
On entry, pdb=value.
Constraint: pdb>0.
On entry, pdx=value.
Constraint: pdx>0.
NE_INT_2
On entry, pda=value and n=value.
Constraint: pdamax1,n.
On entry, pdaf=value and n=value.
Constraint: pdafmax1,n.
On entry, pdb=value and n=value.
Constraint: pdbmax1,n.
On entry, pdb=value and nrhs=value.
Constraint: pdbmax1,nrhs.
On entry, pdx=value and n=value.
Constraint: pdxmax1,n.
On entry, pdx=value and nrhs=value.
Constraint: pdxmax1,nrhs.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.

7  Accuracy

The bounds returned in ferr are not rigorous, because they are estimated, not computed exactly; but in practice they almost always overestimate the actual error.

8  Further Comments

For each right-hand side, computation of the backward error involves a minimum of 16n2 real floating point operations. Each step of iterative refinement involves an additional 24n2 real operations. At most five steps of iterative refinement are performed, but usually only one or two steps are required.
Estimating the forward error involves solving a number of systems of linear equations of the form Ax=b or AHx=b; the number is usually 5 and never more than 11. Each solution involves approximately 8n2 real operations.
The real analogue of this function is nag_dgerfs (f07ahc).

9  Example

This example solves the system of equations AX=B using iterative refinement and to compute the forward and backward error bounds, where
A= -1.34+2.55i 0.28+3.17i -6.39-2.20i 0.72-0.92i -0.17-1.41i 3.31-0.15i -0.15+1.34i 1.29+1.38i -3.29-2.39i -1.91+4.42i -0.14-1.35i 1.72+1.35i 2.41+0.39i -0.56+1.47i -0.83-0.69i -1.96+0.67i
and
B= 26.26+51.78i 31.32-06.70i 6.43-08.68i 15.86-01.42i -5.75+25.31i -2.15+30.19i 1.16+02.57i -2.56+07.55i .
Here A is nonsymmetric and must first be factorized by nag_zgetrf (f07arc).

9.1  Program Text

Program Text (f07avce.c)

9.2  Program Data

Program Data (f07avce.d)

9.3  Program Results

Program Results (f07avce.r)


nag_zgerfs (f07avc) (PDF version)
f07 Chapter Contents
f07 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2012