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nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt (f05aa) applies the Schmidt orthogonalization process to n$n$ vectors in m$m$-dimensional space, n ≤ m$n\le m$.

Mark 22: m has been made optional

.nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt (f05aa) applies the Schmidt orthogonalization process to n$n$ linearly independent vectors in m$m$-dimensional space, n ≤ m$n\le m$. The effect of this process is to replace the original n$n$ vectors by n$n$ orthonormal vectors which have the property that the r$\mathit{r}$th vector is linearly dependent on the first r$\mathit{r}$ of the original vectors, and that the sum of squares of the elements of the r$\mathit{r}$th vector is equal to 1$1$, for r = 1,2, … ,n$\mathit{r}=1,2,\dots ,n$. Inner-products are accumulated using additional precision.

None.

- 1: a(lda,n2) – double array
- lda, the first dimension of the array, must satisfy the constraint lda ≥ m$\mathit{lda}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
- 2: n1 – int64int32nag_int scalar
- The indices of the first and last columns of A$A$ to be orthogonalized.

- 1: m – int64int32nag_int scalar
*Default*: The first dimension of the array a.m$m$, the number of elements in each vector.- 2: n2 – int64int32nag_int scalar
- The indices of the first and last columns of A$A$ to be orthogonalized.

- lda s

- 1: a(lda,n2) – double array
- lda ≥ m$\mathit{lda}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.These vectors store the orthonormal vectors.
- 2: cc – double scalar
- Is used to indicate linear dependence of the original vectors. The nearer cc is to 1.0$1.0$, the more likely vector icol is dependent on vectors n1 to icol − 1${\mathbf{icol}}-1$. See Section [Further Comments].
- 3: icol – int64int32nag_int scalar
- The column number corresponding to cc. See Section [Further Comments].
- 4: ifail – int64int32nag_int scalar
- ifail = 0${\mathrm{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the function detects an error (see [Error Indicators and Warnings]).

Errors or warnings detected by the function:

Innerproducts are accumulated using additional precision arithmetic and full machine accuracy should be obtained except when cc > 0.99999${\mathbf{cc}}>0.99999$. (See Section [Further Comments].)

The time taken by nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt (f05aa) is approximately proportional to nm^{2}$n{m}^{2}$, where n = n2 − n1 + 1$n={\mathbf{n2}}-{\mathbf{n1}}+1$.

Parameters cc and icol have been included to give some indication of whether or not the vectors are nearly linearly independent, and their values should always be tested on exit from the function. cc will be in the range [0.0,1.0]$[0.0,1.0]$ and the closer cc is to 1.0$1.0$, the more likely the vector icol is to be linearly dependent on vectors n1 to icol − 1${\mathbf{icol}}-1$. Theoretically, when the vectors are linearly dependent, cc should be exactly 1.0$1.0$. In practice, because of rounding errors, it may be difficult to decide whether or not a value of cc close to 1.0$1.0$ indicates linear dependence. As a general guide a value of cc > 0.99999${\mathbf{cc}}>0.99999$ usually indicates linear dependence, but examples exist which give cc > 0.99999${\mathbf{cc}}>0.99999$ for linearly independent vectors. If one of the original vectors is zero or if, possibly due to rounding errors, an exactly zero vector is produced by the Gram–Schmidt process, then cc is set exactly to 1.0$1.0$ and the vector is not, of course, normalized. If more than one such vector occurs then icol references the last of these vectors.

If you are concerned about testing for near linear dependence in a set of vectors you may wish to consider using function nag_lapack_dgesvd (f08kb).

Open in the MATLAB editor: nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt_example

function nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt_examplea = [1, -2, 3, 1; -2, 1, -2, -1; 3, -2, 1, 5; 4, 1, 5, 3]; n1 = int64(2); [aOut, cc, icol, ifail] = nag_orthog_real_gram_schmidt(a, n1)

aOut = 1.0000 -0.6325 0.3310 -0.5404 -2.0000 0.3162 -0.2483 0.2119 3.0000 -0.6325 -0.0000 0.7735 4.0000 0.3162 0.9104 0.2543 cc = 0.5822 icol = 4 ifail = 0

Open in the MATLAB editor: f05aa_example

function f05aa_examplea = [1, -2, 3, 1; -2, 1, -2, -1; 3, -2, 1, 5; 4, 1, 5, 3]; n1 = int64(2); [aOut, cc, icol, ifail] = f05aa(a, n1)

aOut = 1.0000 -0.6325 0.3310 -0.5404 -2.0000 0.3162 -0.2483 0.2119 3.0000 -0.6325 -0.0000 0.7735 4.0000 0.3162 0.9104 0.2543 cc = 0.5822 icol = 4 ifail = 0

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