NAG Library Function Document
nag_1d_pade (e02rac) calculates the coefficients in a Padé approximant to a function from its user-supplied Maclaurin expansion.
||nag_1d_pade (Integer ia,
const double c,
Given a power series
nag_1d_pade (e02rac) uses the coefficients
, to form the
Padé approximant of the form
defined to be unity. The two sets of coefficients
, in the numerator and denominator are calculated by direct solution of the Padé equations (see Graves–Morris (1979)
); these values are returned through the argument list unless the approximant is degenerate.
Padé approximation is a useful technique when values of a function are to be obtained from its Maclaurin expansion but convergence of the series is unacceptably slow or even nonexistent. It is based on the hypothesis of the existence of a sequence of convergent rational approximations, as described in Baker and Graves–Morris (1981)
and Graves–Morris (1979)
Unless there are reasons to the contrary (as discussed in Chapter 4, Section 2, Chapters 5 and 6 of Baker and Graves–Morris (1981)
), one normally uses the diagonal sequence of Padé approximants, namely
Subsequent evaluation of the approximant at a given value of
may be carried out using nag_1d_pade_eval (e02rbc)
Baker G A Jr and Graves–Morris P R (1981) Padé approximants, Part 1: Basic theory encyclopaedia of Mathematics and its Applications Addison–Wesley
Graves–Morris P R (1979) The numerical calculation of Padé approximants Padé Approximation and its Applications. Lecture Notes in Mathematics (ed L Wuytack) 765 231–245 Adison–Wesley
ia – IntegerInput
ib – IntegerInput
are the degrees of the numerator and denominator of the approximant, respectively.
c – const doubleInput
On entry: must specify, for , the coefficient of in the given power series.
a[ia] – doubleOutput
On exit: , for , contains the coefficient in the numerator of the approximant.
b[ib] – doubleOutput
On exit: , for , contains the coefficient in the denominator of the approximant.
fail – NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6
in the Essential Introduction).
6 Error Indicators and Warnings
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
On entry, argument had an illegal value.
The Pade approximant is degenerate.
On entry, and .
Constraint: and .
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG
The solution should be the best possible to the extent to which the solution is determined by the input coefficients. It is recommended that you determine the locations of the zeros of the numerator and denominator polynomials, both to examine compatibility with the analytic structure of the given function and to detect defects. (Defects are nearby pole-zero pairs; defects close to
characterise ill-conditioning in the construction of the approximant.) Defects occur in regions where the approximation is necessarily inaccurate. The example program calls nag_zeros_real_poly (c02agc)
to determine the above zeros.
It is easy to test the stability of the computed numerator and denominator coefficients by making small perturbations of the original Maclaurin series coefficients (e.g.,
). These questions of intrinsic error of the approximants and computational error in their calculation are discussed in Chapter 2 of Baker and Graves–Morris (1981)
8 Parallelism and Performance
nag_1d_pade (e02rac) is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
nag_1d_pade (e02rac) makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the Users' Note
for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.
The time taken is approximately proportional to .
This example calculates the
Padé approximant of
(whose power-series coefficients are first stored in the array c
). The poles and zeros are then calculated to check the character of the
10.1 Program Text
Program Text (e02race.c)
10.2 Program Data
10.3 Program Results
Program Results (e02race.r)