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g01 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

# NAG Library Function Documentnag_prob_von_mises (g01erc)

## 1  Purpose

nag_prob_von_mises (g01erc) returns the probability associated with the lower tail of the von Mises distribution between $-\pi$ and $\pi$ .

## 2  Specification

 #include #include
 double nag_prob_von_mises (double t, double vk, NagError *fail)

## 3  Description

The von Mises distribution is a symmetric distribution used in the analysis of circular data. The lower tail area of this distribution on the circle with mean direction ${\mu }_{0}=0$ and concentration argument kappa, $\kappa$, can be written as
 $PrΘ≤θ:κ=12πI0κ ∫-πθeκcos⁡ΘdΘ,$
where $\theta$ is reduced modulo $2\pi$ so that $-\pi \le \theta <\pi$ and $\kappa \ge 0$. Note that if $\theta =\pi$ then nag_prob_von_mises (g01erc) returns a probability of $1$. For very small $\kappa$ the distribution is almost the uniform distribution, whereas for $\kappa \to \infty$ all the probability is concentrated at one point.
The method of calculation for small $\kappa$ involves backwards recursion through a series expansion in terms of modified Bessel functions, while for large $\kappa$ an asymptotic Normal approximation is used.
In the case of small $\kappa$ the series expansion of Pr($\Theta \le \theta$: $\kappa$) can be expressed as
 $PrΘ≤θ:κ=12+θ 2π +1πI0κ ∑n=1∞n-1Inκsin⁡nθ,$
where ${I}_{n}\left(\kappa \right)$ is the modified Bessel function. This series expansion can be represented as a nested expression of terms involving the modified Bessel function ratio ${R}_{n}$,
 $Rnκ=Inκ In-1κ , n=1,2,3,…,$
which is calculated using backwards recursion.
For large values of $\kappa$ (see Section 7) an asymptotic Normal approximation is used. The angle $\Theta$ is transformed to the nearly Normally distributed variate $Z$,
 $Z=bκsin⁡Θ2,$
where
 $bκ=2π eκ I0κ$
and $b\left(\kappa \right)$ is computed from a continued fraction approximation. An approximation to order ${\kappa }^{-4}$ of the asymptotic normalizing series for $z$ is then used. Finally the Normal probability integral is evaluated.
For a more detailed analysis of the methods used see Hill (1977).

## 4  References

Hill G W (1977) Algorithm 518: Incomplete Bessel function ${I}_{0}$: The Von Mises distribution ACM Trans. Math. Software 3 279–284
Mardia K V (1972) Statistics of Directional Data Academic Press

## 5  Arguments

1:     tdoubleInput
On entry: $\theta$, the observed von Mises statistic measured in radians.
2:     vkdoubleInput
On entry: the concentration parameter $\kappa$, of the von Mises distribution.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{vk}}\ge 0.0$.
3:     failNagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6 in the Essential Introduction).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
NE_REAL
On entry, ${\mathbf{vk}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{vk}}\ge 0.0$.

## 7  Accuracy

nag_prob_von_mises (g01erc) uses one of two sets of constants depending on the value of machine precision. One set gives an accuracy of six digits and uses the Normal approximation when ${\mathbf{vk}}\ge 6.5$, the other gives an accuracy of $12$ digits and uses the Normal approximation when ${\mathbf{vk}}\ge 50.0$.

Using the series expansion for small $\kappa$ the time taken by nag_prob_von_mises (g01erc) increases linearly with $\kappa$; for larger $\kappa$, for which the asymptotic Normal approximation is used, the time taken is much less.
If angles outside the region $-\pi \le \theta <\pi$ are used care has to be taken in evaluating the probability of being in a region ${\theta }_{1}\le \theta \le {\theta }_{2}$ if the region contains an odd multiple of $\pi$, $\left(2n+1\right)\pi$. The value of $F\left({\theta }_{2}\text{;}\kappa \right)-F\left({\theta }_{1}\text{;}\kappa \right)$ will be negative and the correct probability should then be obtained by adding one to the value.

## 9  Example

This example inputs four values from the von Mises distribution along with the values of the argument $\kappa$. The probabilities are computed and printed.

### 9.1  Program Text

Program Text (g01erce.c)

### 9.2  Program Data

Program Data (g01erce.d)

### 9.3  Program Results

Program Results (g01erce.r)