f08 Chapter Contents
f08 Chapter Introduction
NAG C Library Manual

# NAG Library Function Documentnag_zgghrd (f08wsc)

## 1  Purpose

nag_zgghrd (f08wsc) reduces a pair of complex matrices $\left(A,B\right)$, where $B$ is upper triangular, to the generalized upper Hessenberg form using unitary transformations.

## 2  Specification

 #include #include
 void nag_zgghrd (Nag_OrderType order, Nag_ComputeQType compq, Nag_ComputeZType compz, Integer n, Integer ilo, Integer ihi, Complex a[], Integer pda, Complex b[], Integer pdb, Complex q[], Integer pdq, Complex z[], Integer pdz, NagError *fail)

## 3  Description

nag_zgghrd (f08wsc) is usually the third step in the solution of the complex generalized eigenvalue problem
 $Ax=λBx.$
The (optional) first step balances the two matrices using nag_zggbal (f08wvc). In the second step, matrix $B$ is reduced to upper triangular form using the $QR$ factorization function nag_zgeqrf (f08asc) and this unitary transformation $Q$ is applied to matrix $A$ by calling nag_zunmqr (f08auc).
nag_zgghrd (f08wsc) reduces a pair of complex matrices $\left(A,B\right)$, where $B$ is triangular, to the generalized upper Hessenberg form using unitary transformations. This two-sided transformation is of the form
 $QHAZ=H QHBZ=T$
where $H$ is an upper Hessenberg matrix, $T$ is an upper triangular matrix and $Q$ and $Z$ are unitary matrices determined as products of Givens rotations. They may either be formed explicitly, or they may be postmultiplied into input matrices ${Q}_{1}$ and ${Z}_{1}$, so that
 $Q1AZ1H=Q1QHZ1ZH, Q1BZ1H=Q1QTZ1ZH.$

## 4  References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Moler C B and Stewart G W (1973) An algorithm for generalized matrix eigenproblems SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 10 241–256

## 5  Arguments

1:     orderNag_OrderTypeInput
On entry: the order argument specifies the two-dimensional storage scheme being used, i.e., row-major ordering or column-major ordering. C language defined storage is specified by ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$. See Section 3.2.1.3 in the Essential Introduction for a more detailed explanation of the use of this argument.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$ or Nag_ColMajor.
2:     compqNag_ComputeQTypeInput
On entry: specifies the form of the computed unitary matrix $Q$.
${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$
Do not compute $Q$.
${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$
The unitary matrix $Q$ is returned.
${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$
q must contain a unitary matrix ${Q}_{1}$, and the product ${Q}_{1}Q$ is returned.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, $\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$.
3:     compzNag_ComputeZTypeInput
On entry: specifies the form of the computed unitary matrix $Z$.
${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$
Do not compute $Z$.
${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$
The unitary matrix $Z$ is returned.
${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$
z must contain a unitary matrix ${Z}_{1}$, and the product ${Z}_{1}Z$ is returned.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$, $\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$.
4:     nIntegerInput
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrices $A$ and $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
5:     iloIntegerInput
6:     ihiIntegerInput
On entry: ${i}_{\mathrm{lo}}$ and ${i}_{\mathrm{hi}}$ as determined by a previous call to nag_zggbal (f08wvc). Otherwise, they should be set to $1$ and $n$, respectively.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{n}}>0$, $1\le {\mathbf{ilo}}\le {\mathbf{ihi}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$;
• if ${\mathbf{n}}=0$, ${\mathbf{ilo}}=1$ and ${\mathbf{ihi}}=0$.
7:     a[$\mathit{dim}$]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pda}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $A$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{a}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pda}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the matrix $A$ of the matrix pair $\left(A,B\right)$. Usually, this is the matrix $A$ returned by nag_zunmqr (f08auc).
On exit: a is overwritten by the upper Hessenberg matrix $H$.
8:     pdaIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array a.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
9:     b[$\mathit{dim}$]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array b must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdb}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $B$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{b}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdb}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: the upper triangular matrix $B$ of the matrix pair $\left(A,B\right)$. Usually, this is the matrix $B$ returned by the $QR$ factorization function nag_zgeqrf (f08asc).
On exit: b is overwritten by the upper triangular matrix $T$.
10:   pdbIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array b.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
11:   q[$\mathit{dim}$]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array q must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdq}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$;
• $1$ when ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Q$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{q}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdq}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$, q must contain a unitary matrix ${Q}_{1}$.
If ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, q is not referenced.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$, q contains the unitary matrix $Q$.
Iif ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$, q is overwritten by ${Q}_{1}Q$.
12:   pdqIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array q.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
13:   z[$\mathit{dim}$]ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array z must be at least
• $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{pdz}}×{\mathbf{n}}\right)$ when ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$;
• $1$ when ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$.
The $\left(i,j\right)$th element of the matrix $Z$ is stored in
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(j-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+i-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_ColMajor}$;
• ${\mathbf{z}}\left[\left(i-1\right)×{\mathbf{pdz}}+j-1\right]$ when ${\mathbf{order}}=\mathrm{Nag_RowMajor}$.
On entry: if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$, z must contain a unitary matrix ${Z}_{1}$.
If ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$, z is not referenced.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$, z contains the unitary matrix $Z$.
If ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$, z is overwritten by ${Z}_{1}Z$.
14:   pdzIntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating row or column elements (depending on the value of order) in the array z.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
15:   failNagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.6 in the Essential Introduction).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
On entry, argument $〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ had an illegal value.
NE_ENUM_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{compq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitQ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateSchur}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
if ${\mathbf{compq}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotQ}$, ${\mathbf{pdq}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{compz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_InitZ}$ or $\mathrm{Nag_UpdateZ}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$;
if ${\mathbf{compz}}=\mathrm{Nag_NotZ}$, ${\mathbf{pdz}}\ge 1$.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdq}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdq}}>0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdz}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdz}}>0$.
NE_INT_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{pda}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{pdb}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{pdb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
NE_INT_3
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$, ${\mathbf{ilo}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$ and ${\mathbf{ihi}}=〈\mathit{\text{value}}〉$.
Constraint: if ${\mathbf{n}}>0$, $1\le {\mathbf{ilo}}\le {\mathbf{ihi}}\le {\mathbf{n}}$;
if ${\mathbf{n}}=0$, ${\mathbf{ilo}}=1$ and ${\mathbf{ihi}}=0$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.

## 7  Accuracy

The reduction to the generalized Hessenberg form is implemented using unitary transformations which are backward stable.

This function is usually followed by nag_zhgeqz (f08xsc) which implements the $QZ$ algorithm for computing generalized eigenvalues of a reduced pair of matrices.