NAG Fortran Compiler Release 5.3
NAG Fortran Compiler Release 5.3
Table of Contents
- 1 Name
- 2 Usage
- 3 Description
- 4 File Types
- 5 Compiler Options
- 6 Files
- 7 Compilation Messages
- 8 Compiler Limits
- 9 Input/Output Information
- 10 OpenMP Support
- 11 Automatic File Preconnection
- 12 IEEE 754 Arithmetic Support
- 13 Random Number Algorithm
- 14 Automatic Garbage Collection
- 15 Memory Tracing
- 16 Undefined Variable Detection
- 17 Data Types
- 18 Modules
- 19 Runtime Environment Variables
- 20 Debugging
- 21 Producing a Call Graph
- 22 Dependency Analysis
- 23 Source File Polishing
- 24 See Also
- 25 Bugs
- 26 Author
nagfor — NAG Fortran Compiler Release 5.3
nagfor [mode] [option]... file...
nagfor is the interface to the NAG Fortran Compiler system. The compiler translates programs written in Fortran into executable programs, relocatable binary modules, assembler source files or C source files.
The mode determines the action performed, and can be one of
- Compile (and/or link) the files; this is the default mode if none is specified.
- Produce a callgraph of the Fortran routines in the files (see the Producing a Call Graph section).
- Produce a dependency analysis of the Fortran files (see the Dependency Analysis section).
- Pretty-print (polish) the Fortran files (see the Source File Polishing section).
Options that do not apply to the current mode of operation (e.g. polish options when the mode is for compilation) are ignored.
A file ending in ‘.f90’ or ‘.f95’ is taken to be a Fortran free-form source file, a file ending in ‘.f’, ‘.for’ or ‘.ftn’ is taken to be a Fortran fixed-form source file; these assumptions can be overridden with the -fixed or -free option. A file ending in ‘.ff90’ or ‘.ff95’ is taken to be a free-form file requiring preprocessing by fpp, and a file ending in ‘.ff’ is taken to be a fixed-form file requiring preprocessing by fpp. A file ending in ‘.F90’ or ‘.F95’ is taken to be a free-form file requiring preprocessing by fpp, and a file ending in ‘.F’ is taken to be a fixed-form files requiring preprocessing by fpp.
If a filename without a suffix is provided nagfor will look for a file with the suffix ‘.f95’, and if that does not exist, the suffix ‘.f90’.
Non-intrinsic modules and INCLUDE files are expected to exist in the current working directory or in a directory named by the -I option.
- Increase the length of each fixed source form input line from 72 characters to 132 characters. This has no effect on free source form input.
- Specify the ABI to compile for, either 32 (the 32-bit ABI), 64t (the AMD 64-bit ABI) or 64 (the AMD 64-bit ABI with object sizes limited to 2 GB). Programs compiled with -abi=64t or -abi=64 will only run on 64-bit kernels. Programs compiled with -abi=32 will run on any x86 Linux system. The default is -abi=64t. The -abi=64 option should only be used to generate code compatible with NAGWare Release 5.1(346) or earlier, it will be withdrawn at a future release.
- Specify static or dynamic binding. This only has effect if specified during the link phase. The default is dynamic binding.
- Compile only (produce .o file for each source file), do not link the .o files to produce an executable file. This option is equivalent to -otype=obj.
- Compile with all but the most expensive runtime checks; this omits the -C=dangling and -C=undefined options.
- Compile checking code according to the value of check,
which must be one of:
all (perform all checks except for -C=undefined), array (check array bounds), bits (check bit intrinsic arguments), calls (check procedure references), dangling (check for dangling pointers), do (check DO loops for zero step values), none (do no checking: this is the default), present (check OPTIONAL references), pointer (check POINTER references), recursion (check for invalid recursion) or undefined (check for undefined variables).
The -C=undefined option is subject to a number of limitations and is not binary-compatible with code compiled without that option; see the Undefined Variable Detection section for further details.
- Colour the message output from the compiler using ANSI escape sequences and the default foreground colouring scheme which is: red for error messages (including fatal errors), blue for warning messages and green for information messages.
- Colour the message output from the compiler according to the specified
This is a comma-separated list of colour specifications, each consisting of a
message category name (“error”, “warn” or “info”) followed
by a colon and the foreground colour name, optionally following by a plus sign
and the background colour name.
The colouring for unspecified categories will be the default.
Colours are: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white.
would be a rather garish colour scheme.
- Make external linkages compatible with other compilers where possible; on Windows this is Microsoft Fortran, on Mac OSX and Linux this is g77, g95 and gfortran, and on other systems this is the operating system vendor's compiler. This affects the naming convention and procedure calling convention (for example, on Windows it causes use of the “STDCALL” calling convention that is commonly used for most DLLs).
- Set the default conversion mode for unformatted files to format.
This format may be overridden by an explicit CONVERT= specifier in the
OPEN statement, or by the environment variable FORT_CONVERTn
(where n is the unit number).
The value of format must be one of the following (not case-sensitive):
Format Description BIG_ENDIAN synonym for BIG_IEEE BIG_IEEE_DD big-endian with IEEE floating-point, quad precision is double-double BIG_IEEE big-endian with IEEE floating-point, including quad precision BIG_NATIVE big-endian with native floating-point format LITTLE_ENDIAN synonym for LITTLE_IEEE LITTLE_IEEE_DD little-endian with IEEE floating-point, quad precision is double-double LITTLE_IEEE little-endian with IEEE floating-point, including quad precision LITTLE_NATIVE little-endian with native floating-point format NATIVE no conversion (the default)
- Defines name to fpp as a preprocessor variable. This only affects files that are being preprocessed by fpp.
- Enable recognition of non-standard double precision complex intrinsic
functions. These act as specific versions of the standard generic intrinsics
Non-standard Equivalent Standard Fortran Generic Intrinsic Function CDABS(A) ABS(A) DCMPLX(X,Y) CMPLX(X,Y,KIND=KIND(0d0)) DCONJG(Z) CONJG(Z) DIMAG(Z) AIMAG(Z) DREAL(Z) REAL(Z) or DBLE(Z)
- Double the size of default INTEGER, LOGICAL, REAL and COMPLEX. Entities specified with explicit kind numbers or byte lengths are unaffected. If quadruple precision REAL is available, the size of DOUBLE PRECISION is also doubled.
- Show but do not execute commands constructed by the compiler driver.
- Allows the compilation and execution of “legacy” software by downgrading the category of common errors found in such software from “Error” to “Warning” (which may then be suppressed entirely with the -w option). This option disables -C=calls, and also enables Hollerith i/o (see the -hollerith_io option).
- Specifies that the encoding system of the Fortran source files is charset, which must be one of ISO_Latin_1, Shift_JIS or UTF_8. If this option is not specified, the default encoding is UTF-8 for Fortran source files that begin with a UTF-8 Byte Order Mark, and ISO Latin-1 (if the language setting is English) or Shift-JIS (if the language setting is Japanese) for other Fortran source files.
- Produce compiler messages in English (default).
- Preprocess only, do not compile. Each file that is preprocessed will produce an output file of the same name with the suffix replaced by .f, .f90 or .f95 according to the suffix of the input file. This option is equivalent to -otype=Fortran.
- Use the Fortran 77/90 version of the SIGN intrinsic instead of the Fortran 95 one (they differ in the treatment of negative zero).
- Specify that the base language is Fortran 95. This only affects extension message generation (Fortran 2003 and 2008 features will be reported as extensions).
- Specify that the base language is Fortran 2003. This only affects extension message generation (Fortran 2008 features will be reported as extensions).
- Specify that the base language is Fortran 2008. This is the default.
- Interpret all Fortran source files according to fixed-form rules.
- Do not store floating-point variables in registers on machines with floating-point registers wider than 64 bits. This can avoid problems with excess precision.
- Preprocess the source files using fpp even if the suffix would normally indicate an ordinary Fortran file.
- Interpret all Fortran source files according to free-form rules.
- Produce information for interactive debugging by the host system debugger.
- Produce debugging information for dbx90, a Fortran 90 aware front-end to the host system debugger. This produces a debug information (.g90) file for each Fortran source file. This option must be specified for both compilation and linking.
- Enables automatic garbage collection of the executable program. This option must be specified for both compilation and linking, and is unavailable on IBM z9 OpenEdition and Windows x64. It is incompatible with the -thread_safe and -mtrace options. For more details see the Automatic Garbage Collection section.
- Compile code to produce a traceback when a runtime error message is generated.
Only routines compiled with this option will appear in such a traceback.
This option increases both executable file size and execution time.
Runtime Error: Invalid input for real editing Program terminated by I/O error on unit 5 (Input_Unit,Formatted,Sequential) main.f90, line 28: Error occurred in READ_DATA main.f90, line 57: Called by READ_COORDS main.f90, line 40: Called by INITIAL main.f90, line 13: Called by $main$
- Display a one-line summary of the options available for the current mode (=compiler, =callgraph, =depend or =polish).
- Enable Fortran-66 compatible input/output of character data stored in numeric variables using the A edit descriptor. This was superseded by the CHARACTER datatype in Fortran 77.
- Accept the extensions to Fortran specified by the High Performance Fortran Forum in HPF 1.0. These consist of the EXTRINSIC keyword and a large number of compiler directives. The compiler directives are checked for correctness but have no effect on compilation.
- -I pathname
- Add pathname to the list of directories which are to be searched for module information (.mod) files and INCLUDE files. The current working directory is always searched first, then any directories named in -I options, then the compiler's library directory (see the -Qpath option).
- -indirect file
- Read the contents of file as additional arguments to the compiler driver.
This option may also be given by “@file”; note in this case there
is no space between the ‘@’ and the file name.
In an indirect file, arguments may be given on separate lines; on a single line, multiple arguments may be separated by blanks. A blank can be included in an option or file name by putting the whole option or file name in quotes ("); this is the only quoting mechanism. An indirect file may reference other indirect files.
- Set the mode of IEEE arithmetic operation according to mode,
which must be one of full, nonstd or stop.
- enables all IEEE arithmetic facilities including non-stop arithmetic.
- Disables non-stop arithmetic, terminating execution on floating overflow, division by zero or invalid operand. If the hardware supports it, this also disables IEEE gradual underflow, producing zero instead of a denormalised number; this can improve performance on some systems.
- enables all IEEE arithmetic facilities except for non-stop arithmetic; execution will be terminated on floating overflow, division by zero or invalid operand.
The -ieee option must be specified when compiling the main program unit, and its effect is global. The default mode is -ieee=stop. For more details see the IEEE 754 Arithmetic Support section.
- Request output of information messages. The default is to suppress these messages.
- Specify the kind numbering system to be used; option must be one of
byte or sequential.
For -kind=byte, the kind numbers for INTEGER, REAL and LOGICAL will match the number of bytes of storage (e.g., default REAL is 4 and DOUBLE PRECISION is 8). Note that COMPLEX kind numbers are the same as its REAL components, and thus half of the total byte length in the entity.
For -kind=sequential (the default), the kind numbers for all datatypes are numbered sequentially from 1, increasing with precision (e.g., default REAL is 1 and DOUBLE PRECISION is 2).
This option does not affect the interpretation of byte-length specifiers (an extension to Fortran 77).
- Link with library libx.a. The linker will search for this library in the directories specified by -Ldir options followed by the normal system directories (see the ld(1) command).
- Add dir to the list of directories for library files (see the ld(1) command).
- Produce module information files (.mod files) only. This option is equivalent to -otype=mod.
- Set the maximum size of a PARAMETER to N MB (megabytes). N must be in the range 1 to 1048576 (1MB to 1TB); the default is 50 MB.
- Increase the limit on the number of continuation lines from 255 to N. This option will not decrease the limit below the standard number.
- -mdir dir
- Write any module information (.mod) files to directory dir instead of the current working directory.
- Downgrade consistency checking of procedure argument lists so that mismatches produce warning messages instead of error messages. This only affects calls to a routine which is not in the current file; calls to a routine in the file being compiled must still be correct. This option disables -C=calls.
- Further downgrade consistency checking of procedure argument lists so that calls to routines in the same file which are incorrect will produce warnings instead of error messages. This option disables -C=calls.
- Trace memory allocation and deallocation. This option is a synonym for -mtrace=on.
- Trace memory allocation and deallocation according to the value of
which must be a comma separated list of one or more of:
address (display addresses), all (all options except for off), line (display file/line info if known), off (disable tracing output), on (enable tracing output), paranoia (protect memory allocator data structures against the user program), size (display size in bytes) or verbose (all options except for off and paranoia ).
This option should be specified during both compilation and linking, and is incompatible with the -gc option. For more details see the Memory Tracing section.
- Initialise REAL and COMPLEX variables to IEEE Signalling NaN, causing a runtime crash if the values are used before being set. This affects local variables, module variables, and INTENT(OUT) dummy arguments only; it does not affect variables in COMMON or EQUIVALENCE.
- Produce compiler messages in Japanese (using Shift-JIS encoding).
- Suppress the warning message that normally appears if a floating-point underflow occurred during execution. This option is only effective if specified during the link phase.
- Do not check for .mod files being out of date.
- Suppress module information (.mod) file production. Combining this with -M will produce no output (other than error and warning messages) at all, equivalent to -otype=none.
- If no licence for the compiler is immediately available, exit with an error instead of queueing for it.
- -o output
- Name the output file output instead of the default. If an executable is being produced the default is a.out; otherwise it is file.o with the -c option, file.c with the -S option, and file.f, file.f90 or file.f95 with the -F option, where file is the base part of the source file (i.e. with the suffix removed).
- Normal optimisation, equivalent to -O2.
- Set the optimisation level to N.
The optimisation levels are:
- No optimisation. This is the default, and is recommended when debugging.
- Minimal quick optimisation.
- Normal optimisation.
- Further optimisation.
- Maximal optimisation.
- This is a synonym for -Oassumed=contig.
- Optimises assumed-shape array dummy arguments according to the value of
which must be one of
- Optimised for contiguous actual arguments. If the actual argument is not contiguous a runtime error will occur (the compiler is not standard-conforming under this option).
- Optimised for contiguous actual arguments; if the actual argument is not contiguous (i.e. it is an array section) a contiguous local copy is made. This may speed up array section accessing if a sufficiently large number of array element or array operations is performed (i.e. if the cost of making the local copy is less than the overhead of discontiguous array accesses), but usually makes such accesses slower. Note that this option does not affect dummy arguments with the TARGET attribute; these are always accessed via the dope vector.
- Optimised for low-moderate accesses to array section (discontiguous) actual arguments. This is the default.
Note that CHARACTER arrays are not affected by these options.
- Specify the dimension of the blocks used for evaluating the MATMUL intrinsic. The default value (only for -O1 and above) is system and datatype dependent.
- Disable the optimisation of constant propagation. This is the default for -O1 and lower.
- Enable the optimisation of constant propagation. This is the default for -O2 and higher.
- Specify that the program does not alter the default rounding mode. This enables the use of faster code for the ANINT intrinsic.
- Specify the depth to which simple loops and array operations should be unrolled. The default is no unrolling (i.e. a depth of 1) for -O0 and -O1, and a depth of 2 for -O and higher optimisation levels. It can be advantageous to disable the Fortran compiler's loop unrolling if the C compiler normally does a very good job itself — this can be accomplished with -Ounroll=1.
- Perform possibly unsafe optimisations that may depend on the numerical stability of the program.
- Recognise OpenMP directives and link with the OpenMP support library. For more details see the OpenMP Support section.
- Specify the type of output file required to filetype, which must be one of
c (C source file), exe (executable file), fortran (Fortran source file), mod (module information file), none (no output file), obj (object file).
The -c, -F and -M options are equivalent to -otype=obj, -otype=Fortran and -otype=mod respectively.
- Compile code to generate profiling information which is written at run-time to an implementation-dependent file (usually gmon.out or mon.out). An execution profile may then be generated using gprof. This option must be specified for compilation and linking and may be unavailable on some implementations.
- Produce position-independent code (small model), for use in a shared library. If the shared library is too big for the small model, use -PIC.
- Produce position-independent code (large model), for use in a shared library.
- -Qpath pathname
- Change the compiler library pathname from its default location to pathname. (The default location on Unix is usually ‘/usr/local/lib/NAG_Fortran’.)
- Double the size of default REAL and COMPLEX, and on machines for
which quadruple-precision floating-point arithmetic is available, double the
size of DOUBLE PRECISION (and the non-standard DOUBLE COMPLEX).
REAL or COMPLEX specified with explicit KIND numbers or
byte lengths are unaffected — but since the KIND intrinsic returns the
correct values, COMPLEX(KIND(0d0)) on a machine with quad-precision
floating-point will correctly select quad-precision COMPLEX.
This has no effect on INTEGER sizes, and so the compiler is not standard-conforming in this mode.
Note: This option has been superseded by the -double option which doubles the size of all numeric data types.
- Strip symbol table information from the executable file. This option is only effective if specified during the link phase.
- Produce assembler (actually C source code). The resulting .c file should be compiled with the NAG Fortran compiler, not with the C compiler directly. This option is equivalent to -otype=c.
- This is equivalent to inserting the SAVE statement in all subprograms which are not declared RECURSIVE, thus causing all non-automatic local variables in such subprograms to be statically allocated.
- Produce obsolescence warning messages for use of ‘CHARACTER*’ syntax. This message is not produced by default since many programs contain this syntax.
- Specify the machine for which code should be generated and optimised.
- -tempdir directory
- Set the directory used for the compiler's temporary files to directory. The default is to use the directory named by the TMPDIR environment variable, or if that is not set, /tmp.
- Compile code for safe execution in a multi-threaded environment. This must be specified when compiling and also during the link phase. It is incompatible with -gc.
- Report execution times for the various compilation phases.
- Specify that IMPLICIT NONE is in effect by default, unless overridden by explicit IMPLICIT statements.
- Bind with the unshared (static) version of the Fortran runtime system; this allows a dynamically linked executable to be run on systems where the NAG Fortran Compiler is not installed. This option is only effective if specified during the link phase.
- Verbose. Print the name of each file as it is compiled.
- Print version information about the compiler.
- Suppress all warning messages. This option is a synonym for -w=all.
- Suppress the warning messages specified by class, which must be one of
all, alloctr, obs, ques, uda, uei, uep,
uip, ulv, unreffed, unused, usf, usy, x77 or
- suppresses all warning messages;
- suppresses warning messages about the use of allocatable components, dummy arguments and functions;
- suppresses warning messages about the use of obsolescent features;
- suppresses warning messages about questionable usage;
- suppresses warning messages about unused dummy arguments;
- suppresses warning messages about unused explicit imports;
- suppresses warning messages about unused external procedures;
- suppresses warning messages about unused intrinsic procedures;
- suppresses warning messages about unused local variables;
- suppresses warning messages about variables set but never referenced;
- suppresses warning messages about unused entities — this is equivalent to ‘-w=uda -w=uei -w=uep -w=uip -w=ulv -w=usf -w=usy’;
- suppresses warning messages about unused statement functions;
- suppresses warning messages about unused symbols;
- suppresses extension warnings for common extensions to Fortran 77 — these are TAB format, byte-length specifiers and Hollerith constants;
- suppresses extension warnings for extensions to Fortran 95.
- The -W
option can be used to specify the path to use for a compilation component or
to pass an option directly to such a component.
The possible combinations are:
- Specify the path used for the Fortran Compiler front-end. Note that this does not affect the library directory; the -Qpath option should be used to specify that.
- Specify the path to use for invoking the C compiler; this is used both for the final stage of compilation and for linking.
- Pass option directly to the host C compiler when compiling (producing the .o file). Multiple options may be specified in a single -Wc, option by separating them with commas.
- Specify the path to use for invoking the linker (producing the executable).
- Pass option directly to the host C compiler when linking (producing the executable). Multiple options may be specified in a single -Wl, option by separating them with commas. A comma may be included in an option by repeating it, e.g. -Wl,-filelist=file1,,file2,,file3 becomes the linker option -filelist=file1,file2,file3.
- Specify the path to use for invoking the fpp preprocessor.
- Pass option directly to fpp when preprocessing.
- Specify a list of external procedures for which to suppress argument data type and arrayness consistency checking. The procedure names should be separated by commas, e.g. -wmismatch=p_one,p2. Unlike the -mismatch option, this only affects data type and arrayness checking, and no warning messages are produced.
- Report on the availability of licences for the compiler instead of compiling anything.
|/opt/NAG_Fortran/lib||Default NAG Fortran Compiler library directory on Sun Solaris (see -Qpath); referred to as library hereafter.|
|/usr/local/lib/NAG_Fortran||Default NAG Fortran Compiler library directory on other Unix-based operating systems.|
|C:\Program Files\NAG\EFBuilderPro\NAG_Fortran\lib||Default NAG Fortran Compiler library directory on Windows.|
The messages produced by the NAG Fortran Compiler itself during compilation are intended to be self-explanatory. The linker, or more rarely the host C compiler, may produce occasional messages.
Messages produced by the compiler are classified by severity level; these levels are:
|Info||informational message, noting an aspect of the source code in which the user may be interested.|
|Warning||the source code appears likely to be in error.|
|Questionable||some questionable usage has been found in the source code which may indicate a programming error. This has the same severity as “warning”.|
|Extension||some non-standard-conforming source code has been detected but has successfully been compiled as an extension to the language. This has the same severity as “warning”.|
|Obsolescent||some archaic source code has been detected which although standard-conforming was classified as obsolescent by the Fortran 95 standard. This has the same severity as “warning”.|
|Deleted feature used||a feature that was present in Fortran 90 but deleted from the Fortran 95 standard was used. This has the same severity as “warning”.|
|Error||the source code does not conform to the Fortran standard or does not make sense. Compilation continues after recovery.|
|Fatal||a serious error in the user's program from which the compiler cannot recover, the compilation is immediately terminated.|
|Panic||an internal inconsistency is found by one of the compiler's self-checks; this is a bug in the compiler itself and NAG should be notified.|
|Maximum INCLUDE file nesting||20|
|Maximm number of INCLUDE file references per compilation||2047|
|Maximum DO loop nesting level||199|
|Maximum CASE construct nesting level||30|
|Maximum DATA-implied-DO loop nesting||99|
|Maximum array-constructor-implied-DO loop nesting||99|
|Maximum number of dummy arguments||32767|
|Maximum number of arguments to MIN and MAX||100|
|Maximum character length||2147483647|
|Maximum array size (32-bit systems)||2147483647 bytes|
|Maximum array size (64-bit systems)||64GB|
|Maximum unit number||2147483647|
|Maximum I/O record length||2147483647|
|Standard error (stderr) unit number||0|
|Standard input (stdin) unit number||5|
|Standard output (stdout) unit number||6|
|Default maximum record length for formatted output||1024 characters|
|Default maximum record length for unformatted output||2147483647 bytes|
The default directory used for files opened with STATUS='SCRATCH' is ‘/tmp’ on Unix and the Windows temporary directory on Windows. This default may be overridden with the TMPDIR environment variable.
The most commonly-used features of OpenMP 3.0 are supported. The following table describes the level of support for each OpenMP directive in the initial 5.3 release.
|Executable directive||Level of support|
|PARALLEL||Supported except for the COPYIN clause.|
|DO||Supported except for COLLAPSE, LASTPRIVATE and ORDERED.|
|SECTIONS||Supported except for LASTPRIVATE.|
|PARALLEL DO||Supported except as noted for PARALLEL and DO.|
|PARALLEL SECTIONS||Fully supported.|
|PARALLEL WORKSHARE||Not supported.|
|Data directive/clauses||Level of support|
|FIRSTPRIVATE||Supported in PARALLEL directives.|
All the procedures in section 3.2 of the OpenMP standard are supported; these are omp_set_num_threads, omp_get_num_threads, omp_get_max_threads, omp_get_thread_num, omp_get_num_procs, omp_in_parallel, omp_set_dynamic, omp_get_dynamic, omp_set_nested, omp_get_nested, omp_set_schedule, omp_get_schedule, omp_get_thread_limit, omp_set_max_active_levels, omp_get_max_active_levels, get_level, omp_get_ancestor_thread_num, omp_get_team_size and omp_get_active_level. The lock procedures in section 3.3 of the OpenMP standard are not supported in release 5.3.
The timing routines in section 3.4 of the OpenMP standard are supported; these are omp_get_wtime and omp_get_wtick.
When using the IEEE arithmetic support modules, the IEEE modes (rounding, halting and underflow) are propagated into spawned OpenMP threads at the beginning of a PARALLEL construct, and any IEEE flag that are set by an OpenMP thread is passed back to the parent thread at the end of the PARALLEL construct.
The following table lists the OpenMP environment variables with their default values and, if applicable, their limits.
|OMP_DYNAMIC||False||true or false|
|OMP_NESTED||False||true or false|
|OMP_STACKSIZE||0||<1GB (32-bit) or 16GB (64-bit)|
|OMP_WAIT_POLICY||None||active or passive|
Note that although the NAG runtime supports up to 32768 threads, operating system limits may prevent usage of so many.
OpenMP is not compatible with the -C=undefined option.
All logical unit numbers are automatically preconnected to specific files. These files need not exist and will only be opened or created if they are accessed with READ or WRITE without an explicit OPEN. By default the specific filename for unit n is fort.n; however if the environment variable FORTnn exists its value is used as the filename. Note that there are two digits in this variable name, e.g. the variable controlling unit 1 is FORT01 whereas the default filename is ‘fort.1’ (unless the prefix has been changed, see the description of module F90_PRECONN_IO).
A file preconnected in this manner is opened with ACCESS='SEQUENTIAL'. If the initial READ or WRITE is an unformatted i/o statement, it is opened with FORM='UNFORMATTED' otherwise it is opened with FORM='FORMATTED'. By default a formatted connection is opened with BLANK='NULL' and POSITION='REWIND' (see module F90_PRECONN_IO).
Automatic preconnection applies only to the initial use of a logical unit; once CLOSEd the unit will not be reconnected automatically but must be explicitly OPENed.
Note that this facility means that it is possible for a READ or WRITE statement with an IOSTAT= clause to receive an i/o error code associated with the implicit OPEN.
If no floating-point option is specified, any floating divide-by-zero, overflow or invalid operand exception will cause the execution of the program to be terminated (with an informative message and usually a core dump). Occurrence of floating underflow may be reported on normal termination of the program. On hardware supporting IEEE 754 standard arithmetic gradual underflow with denormalised numbers will be enabled. Note that this mode of operation is the only one available on hardware which does not support IEEE 754.
If the -ieee=full option is specified, non-stop arithmetic is enabled; thus REAL variables may take on the values +Infinity, −Infinity and NaN (Not-a-Number). If any of the floating exceptions listed above are detected by the hardware during execution, this fact will be reported on normal termination. The -ieee=full option must be specified when compiling the main program and has global effect.
If the -ieee=nonstd option is specified, floating-point exceptions are handled in the default manner (i.e. execution is terminated). However, gradual underflow is not enabled, so results which would have produced a denormalised number produce zero instead. This option can only be used on hardware for which this mode of operation is faster. Like -ieee=full, the -ieee=nonstd option must be specified when compiling the main program and has global effect.
The random number generator supplied as the intrinsic subroutine RANDOM_NUMBER is the “Mersenne Twister”.
The -gc option enables use of the runtime garbage collector. It is necessary to use this option during the link phase for it to have effect; specifying it additionally during the compilation phase can result in improved performance.
The supplied Technical Information note (TECHINFO) lists whether garbage collection is available for your system. If it is available, there will be a file ‘gc.o’ in the compiler's library directory.
The collector used is based on version 5.3 of the publicly available general purpose garbage collecting storage allocator of Hans-J Boehm, Alan J Demers and Xerox Corporation, described in “Garbage Collection in an Uncooperative Environment” (H Boehm and M Weiser, Software Practice and Experience, September 1988, pp 807-820).
The copyright notice attached to their latest version is as follows:
Copyright 1988, 1989 Hans-J. Boehm, Alan J. Demers Copyright (c) 1991-1995 by Xerox Corporation. All rights reserved. Copyright 1996-1999 by Silicon Graphics. All rights reserved. Copyright 1999 by Hewlett-Packard Company. All rights reserved. THIS MATERIAL IS PROVIDED AS IS, WITH ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. ANY USE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. Permission is hereby granted to use or copy this program for any purpose, provided the above notices are retained on all copies. Permission to modify the code and to distribute modified code is granted, provided the above notices are retained, and a notice that the code was modified is included with the above copyright notice.
Note that the “NO WARRANTY” disclaimer refers to the original copyright holders Boehm, Demers, Xerox Corporation, Silicon Graphics and Hewlett-Packard Company. The modified collector distributed in binary form with the NAG Fortran Compiler is subject to the same warranty and conditions as the rest of the NAG Fortran compilation system.
The module F90_GC is provided; it contains functions and variables that can control the behaviour of the garbage collector.
Tracing of memory allocation and deallocation is provided by the -mtrace option. Control is provided over whether the address, size, and line number of each allocation is displayed, or the tracing output can be suppressed entirely. A “paranoia” mode is provided where the memory allocator protects its data structures against inadvertent modification by the user program.
Runtime environment variables may be used to override the tracing options a program was built with, and to specify where to write the tracing output. These are only operative if the program was built with some tracing option; -mtrace=off will build a program with the tracing-capable memory allocator.
If -mtrace=off is not specified, use of any -mtrace option will implicitly do a -mtrace=on.
Basic tracing produces a message to the memory tracing file (normally standard error) for each allocation and deallocation, including those for automatic variables, i/o buffers and compiler-generated temporaries. Each allocation is numbered sequentially; the first three items are the i/o buffers for units 0, 5 and 6 (standard error, standard input and standard output).
All -mtrace= suboptions may be overridden at run time by the NAGFORTRAN_MTRACE_OPTIONS environment variable, which should be set to the required trace_opt_list (e.g. ‘on,size’). The memory tracing file may be specified at run time by the NAGFORTRAN_MTRACE_FILE environment variable.
The -mtrace option must be specified when linking, and is incompatible with -gc. Additionally, line number information is only available for those files compiled with -mtrace=line.
The nagfmcheck program can be used to check the output from the -mtrace option. It is designed to be used as a filter. Any lines that do not look like memory tracing output are ignored. It reports to standard output any errors it detects such as deallocating something twice, deallocating something that was never allocated, or deallocating something with a size different from that with which it was allocated. It also reports any apparent memory leaks, though this is less useful if the program terminated prematurely.
Use of undefined variables can be detected with the -C=undefined option. Program units compiled with this option are incompatible with program units compiled without this option (i.e. the whole program must be compiled the same way). For this reason, -C=undefined is not part of -C or -C=all.
Currently, there are a number of other limitations on the use of -C=undefined.
- It is incompatible with pointers in an initialised COMMON.
- All intrinsic modules are available, but the ISO_C_BINDING module can only be used with all-Fortran programs as the option makes changes to the ABI.
- Internal READ from a CHARACTER array requires the entire specified array subobject to be “defined”, even those elements corresponding to records not actually read.
- Internal WRITE to a CHARACTER array is considered to define the entire specified array subobject, even those elements corresponding to records not actually written.
- Certain intrinsic functions require the entirety of their arguments to be defined, even if some portions are not actually required for the value of the function. For example, the PAD argument to RESHAPE when no padding is actually required, and elements of the ARRAY argument to PACK that correspond to false elements of the MASK.
- It is incompatible with the use of OpenMP directives.
The table below lists the data types provided by the NAG Fortran Compiler together with their kind numbers. There are two possibilities for the KIND numbers: the default mode of operation (which may be specified explicitly by the -kind=sequential option) and the “byte” numbering scheme (specified by the -kind=byte option).
|Type||KIND Number||KIND Number||Description|
|REAL||1||4||Single precision floating-point|
|REAL||2||8||Double precision floating-point|
|REAL||3||16||Quadruple precision floating-point|
|COMPLEX||1||4||Single precision complex|
|COMPLEX||2||8||Double precision complex|
|COMPLEX||3||16||Quadruple precision complex|
|LOGICAL||1||1||Single byte logical|
|LOGICAL||2||2||Double byte logical|
|LOGICAL||4||8||Eight byte logical|
|INTEGER||3||4||32-bit (default) integer|
|CHARACTER||1||1||ASCII or ISO 8859-1 character|
|CHARACTER||2||2||JIS X 0213 character|
|CHARACTER||3||3||Unicode (UCS-2) character|
|CHARACTER||4||4||ISO 10646 (UCS-4) character|
Note that on all machines except Sun Solaris with the SunPro C compiler, quadruple precision is actually “double double” precision; this provides nearly twice the precision of Double precision but with a reduced exponent range.
The F90_KIND module contains named parameters useful for specifying which kind you want regardless of whether the numbering system is “sequential” or “byte”.
Additional intrinsic modules built into the NAG Fortran Compiler are described in the “nag_modules” document.
To use a module it must be previously compiled, or must be defined in the file prior to its use. When separately compiling a module the -c option should be specified.
Compiling a module creates a ‘.mod’ file and a ‘.o’ file. The ‘.mod’ file is used by the compiler at compile time to provide information about module contents, the ‘.o’ file (if generated) contains the code of any module procedures and must be specified when creating an executable file.
Note that the name of the ‘.mod’ file will be the name of the module, the ‘.o’ file will be named after the original source file.
When a previously compiled module is USEd the NAG Fortran Compiler attempts to find its source file and, if that is successful, checks the modification times producing a warning message if the ‘.mod’ file is out of date.
The following variables control the runtime environment for programs compiled with the NAG Fortran Compiler.
- Programs compiled using any -mtrace= option will write the memory trace to this file. The default is standard error.
- Changes the memory tracing options for programs compiled using any -mtrace= option.
- Runtime error messages will be written to this file. The default is standard error.
- Controls the language used for runtime error messages. This may be ‘English’ or ‘Japanese’ (not case-sensitive); the default is English.
- Controls the directory used for scratch files (the default is system-dependent).
For operating systems other than Windows a Modern Fortran-aware debugger might be available as dbx90; see TECHINFO.txt for details.
In general, host system debuggers, such as dbx or gdb, may be used successfully on Fortran code as the names of the original source files, plus line numbers, are passed through to the intermediate C files. In using such debuggers it should be noted that most local variables have an underscore appended to their names. It may be useful to look at the intermediate C code when debugging; this is produced by the -S option.
The call graph generator takes a set of Fortran source files and produces a call graph with optional index and called-by tables. C files and fpp-processed files are not handled.
The call graph generator understands the following compiler options with the same meaning: -132, -compatible, -dcfuns, -double, -dryrun, -dusty, -encoding, -english, -f2003, -f2008, -f95, -fixed, -free, -help, -hollerith_io, -hpf, -I, -indirect, -info, -kind, -maxcontin, -mismatch, -mismatch_all, -nihongo, -nocheck_modtime, -nomod, -o, -Qpath, -r8, -strictf95, -u, -v, -V, -w and -xlicinfo.
The “@filename” syntax may also be used, with the same effect as the “-indirect filename” option.
The call graph is written to the file specified by the -o option, or to standard output if no -o option is specified.
The following additional options control the output produced.
- Produce a “called-by” table showing, for each routine, the routines that call it directly or indirectly. This is produced at the end of the output.
- Indent by N for each level in the graph, up to the maximum. The default is -indent=4.
- The maximum indentation is N. The default is -indent_max=70.
- Produce an alphabetic index listing, for each routine, the line of the call graph where the routine first appears. This follows the call graph itself and precedes the called-by table (when the -calledby option is used).
- Show ENTRY point names in the call graph; without this option, calls to an ENTRY point are shown as calls to the containing subprogram.
- If a call is via a generic identifier, show the generic identifier in the call graph.
- Show the host scope names for calls to internal and module procedures.
- Show the class of each procedure (e.g. ‘module’, ‘internal’, ...).
- If a called procedure was renamed on a USE statement, show the renaming.
The dependency analyser takes a set of Fortran source files and produces dependency information in the form specified. C files and fpp-processed files are not handled.
The dependency analyser understands the following compiler options with the same meaning: -132, -dryrun, -english, -fixed, -free, -help, -hpf, -I, -indirect, -nihongo, -o, -Qpath, -tempdir, -v and -V. The “@filename” syntax may also be used with the same effect as the “-indirect filename” option.
The output form is controlled by the -otype=type option, where type is one of:
|blist||(the filenames as an ordered build list),|
|dfile||(the dependencies in Makefile format, written to separate file.d files),|
|info||(the dependencies as English descriptions) or|
|make||(the dependencies in Makefile format).|
The default is -otype=info. If -otype=dfile is specified, no -o option is permitted; otherwise, the result is written to the file specified by the -o option or to standard output if no -o option is specified.
The polisher takes a set of Fortran source files, which may be in fixed or free form, and produces a free form “polished” version of each file. C files and fpp-processed files are not handled.
The polisher understands the following compiler options with the same meaning: -132, -encoding, -english, -fixed, -free, -help, -I, -indirect, -info, -nihongo, -noqueue, -o, -Qpath, -tempdir, -u, -v, -V, -w and -xlicinfo.
The polished output is written to the file specified by the -o option, or to the same filename with the extension replaced by ‘.f90_pol’ if no -o option is specified. The output file cannot have the same name as the input file.
The following additional options control the operation of the polisher:
- Enable options to alter comments; without this option, any options that would otherwise alter the comments are ignored.
- Turn comment lines that have no text (other than the comment-initiating character) into plain blank lines; this is the default if the -alter_comments option is set.
- Ensure that there is a blank line after the declarations and before the first executable statement; this is the default.
- Specify whether to write a Unicode Byte-Order Mark at the beginning of the output file; X must be one of Asis (same as the input file), Insert (insert a byte-order mark) or Remove (remove any byte-order mark). This option only has effect if the input file is known to be in UTF-8 encoding, either because it begins with a byte-order mark or the -encoding=UTF8 option was used. The default is -bom=Asis.
- If a comment line will be split into two lines, the comment may be broken in the middle of a long word.
- Delete all comments (if the -alter_comments option is set).
- Delete blank lines and comment lines that have no text (other than the comment-initiating character), if the -alter_comments option is set.
- Delete labels that are never referenced; this is the default.
- If renumbering FORMAT statements in a separate sequence, the first FORMAT statement will be N; the default is -format_start=90000.
- If renumbering FORMAT statements in a separate sequence, the step from one label to the next will be N; the default is -format_step=10. Note that this may be negative (but not zero).
- Set the case to use for identifiers; X must be one of C (for Capitalised), L (for lowercase) or U (for UPPERCASE); the default is -idcase=L.
- Indent statements within a construct by N spaces from the current indentation level; the default is -indent=2.
- When indenting comments, the comment-initiating character should be indented to the indentation level; this is the default.
- Indent comments; this is the default if the -alter_comments option is set. The result is also affected by the -indent_comment_marker option.
- Indent continuation lines by an additional N spaces; the default is -indent_continuation=2.
- Set the maximum indentation level to N spaces; the default is -indent_max=60. The value must be at least 10 less than the output line length (-width=).
- Set the indentation level for inline comments to column N; the default is -inline_comment_index=35.
- Do not delete blank lines or comment lines with no text; this is the opposite of -delete_blank_lines and is the default.
- Do not delete non-blank comment lines; this is the opposite of -delete_comments and is the default.
- Specifies how to handle the KIND= specifier in declarations; X must be one of Asis (take no action but preserve the input status), Insert (insert KIND= if not present), or Remove (remove KIND= if present); the default is -kind_keyword=Asis.
- Set the case to use for language keywords; X must be one of C (for Capitalised), L (for lowercase) or U (for UPPERCASE); the default is -kwcase=C.
- Indent labels; this is the opposite to -label_before_indent.
- Output the statement label, if any, before indenting the statement; this is the default.
- Leave FORMAT statements in the same position as they are in the input file; this is the opposite of -move_formats_to_end, and is the default.
- Set the left margin (initial indent) to N. The value must be at least 10 less than the output line length (-width=).
- Specify whether to add optional keywords and scope names to the END or END TYPE statement for a scope; X must be one of Asis (leave as is), Insert (insert keywords and/or names) or Remove (remove optional keywords and names). This option also applies to the END INTERFACE statement. The default is -name_scopes=Insert.
- Do not alter comments in any way; this is the default.
- Do not turn blank comments to blank lines.
- Do not insert a blank line between the last declaration and the first executable statement.
- If a comment line will be split into two lines, do not break the comment in the middle of a long word; this is the default.
- Place the comment-initiating character for a comment line in column 1.
- Indent the text of a comment line.
- Do not renumber statement labels.
- When renumbering statement labels, use a single sequence for both FORMAT and non-FORMAT statements; this is the default.
- Do not change DO loop terminating statements.
- Specifies the form to use for relational operators, X must be either F77- (use .EQ., .LE., etc.) or F90+ (use ==, <=, etc.); the default is -relational=F90+.
- Renumber statement labels; this is the default.
- When renumbering statement labels, the first label will be N; the default is -renumber_start=100.
- When renumbering statement labels, the step from one label to the next will be N; the default value is -renumber_step=10.
- When renumbering statement labels, renumber FORMAT statements in a separate sequence from non-FORMAT statements.
- Change the terminating statements of all DO loops so that each loop ends with an ENDDO statement; this is the default.
- Set the maximum length of the text on each output line to N; the default is -width=78. Note that in the case of continuation lines, an additional two characters (‘ &’) will be produced after the last text on a line and this may take the line length over the limit. The width must be at least 10 more than the left margin (-margin=) and the maximum indent (-indent_max=). The maximum width setting is 1024, however values higher than 130 will produce output that does not conform to the Fortran standard.
Please report any bugs found to ‘firstname.lastname@example.org’ or ‘email@example.com’, along with any suggestions for improvements.
Malcolm Cohen, Nihon Numerical Algorithms Group KK, Tokyo, Japan.